Calculate temporary, permanent and total hardness of water., Chemistry

Q. A sample of water on analysis was found to contain the following analytical data:

Mg (HCO3)3 = 16.8mg/L, MgCl2 = 19mg/L,

Mg (NO3)2 = 29.6 ppm, CaCO3 = 20 ppm,

MgSO4 = 24.0 mg/L and KOH = 1.9 ppm,

Calculate the temporary, permanent and total hardness of water sample.


S. No.


Amount of substances

Multiplication factor

CaCO3 equivalent


Mg (HCO3)2








100*19/95 = 20 ppm


Mg (NO3)2

29.6 ppm


100*29.6/148= 20 ppm



20 ppm


100*20/100= 20 ppm






100*24/120= 20 ppm



1.9 ppm



 KOH does not cause hardness

Temporary hardness due to = [Mg (HCO3)2 + CaCO3] ppm

= 11.50 +20 ppm = 31.50 ppm

Permanent hardness due to MgCl2, Mg (NO3)2 and MgSO4

= [MgCl2 + Mg (NO3)2 + MgSO4] ppm = [20+20+20] ppm = 60 ppm

Total hardness = Temporary hardness + Permanent hardness

= 31.50 +60 ppm = 91.50 ppm 

Posted Date: 7/21/2012 7:12:11 AM | Location : United States

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