Calculate temporary, permanent and total hardness of water., Chemistry

Q. A sample of water on analysis was found to contain the following analytical data:

Mg (HCO3)3 = 16.8mg/L, MgCl2 = 19mg/L,

Mg (NO3)2 = 29.6 ppm, CaCO3 = 20 ppm,

MgSO4 = 24.0 mg/L and KOH = 1.9 ppm,

Calculate the temporary, permanent and total hardness of water sample.


S. No.


Amount of substances

Multiplication factor

CaCO3 equivalent


Mg (HCO3)2








100*19/95 = 20 ppm


Mg (NO3)2

29.6 ppm


100*29.6/148= 20 ppm



20 ppm


100*20/100= 20 ppm






100*24/120= 20 ppm



1.9 ppm



 KOH does not cause hardness

Temporary hardness due to = [Mg (HCO3)2 + CaCO3] ppm

= 11.50 +20 ppm = 31.50 ppm

Permanent hardness due to MgCl2, Mg (NO3)2 and MgSO4

= [MgCl2 + Mg (NO3)2 + MgSO4] ppm = [20+20+20] ppm = 60 ppm

Total hardness = Temporary hardness + Permanent hardness

= 31.50 +60 ppm = 91.50 ppm 

Posted Date: 7/21/2012 7:12:11 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Calculate temporary, permanent and total hardness of water., Assignment Help, Ask Question on Calculate temporary, permanent and total hardness of water., Get Answer, Expert's Help, Calculate temporary, permanent and total hardness of water. Discussions

Write discussion on Calculate temporary, permanent and total hardness of water.
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Illustrate the following observations:  (a) Cottrell's smoke precipitator is fitted at the mouth of the chimney used in factories.  (b) Ferric hydroxide sol. Gets coagulated

Why NH4Cl and NH4OH are added to the test solution?

Q. What are natural or synthetic food colours? Food in raw state has a natural colour, which is associated with the characteristics of that food. In the processing, preservatio

Refining of petroleum: Petroleum (crude) extracted from earth's crust is an intimate mixture of many organic compounds. Crude petroleum needs to be purified and its components

computer program in ph titration

Q. Explain about Thiosulphuric Acid? Thiosulphuric acid, H 2 S 2 0 3 , has never been isolated but its salts are well known which contain the thiosulphate ion, S 2 O 2- 3 . Th

Q. Describe Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams? Ans. Remember that the atomic number of an atom tells us the number of protons and electrons in the neutral atom. To a

Reduction of Alkyne: Alkynes add on hydrogen in existence of appropriate catalysts like finely divided Ni, Pd. Determine if the triple bond is not found at the end of t

cis-2-butene is a symmetrical alkene Because cis-2-butene is a symmetrical alkene, it reacts to give the similar product in either oxymercuration- reduction or hydroboration-ox

Sedimentation: The process of allowing w ater to stand undisturbed in big tanks for some time in order to facilitate the settling down of the course suspended particles due to th