Byproducts of the food industry, such as coffee residues, fruit pulp and cocoa meal are of low energy value, but are relatively high in nitrogen. In additional, animal excreta tend to have an excess of nitrogen in relation to available energy.
Coffee waste: Coffee is cultivated in coastal regions of India and is available about 0000 tonnes which yield about 45000 tonnes of coffee husk. It has about 9% CP, 40% CF, 10% EE, and 5% ash. It has 3.4% DCP and 42.2% TDN, and can be incorporated in the complete diet of large ruminants.
Leguminous pulse straw: The residues of pulses are composed of husk of pod with leaves and tender stems which are more nutritious than the cereal straws and stovers. They contain 8.0-12.5% CP and 40-50% NFE. The voluntary intake varies from 1.8-2.5 per cent of body weight in cattle and buffaloes. Groundnut straw along with wheat straw (35%) and wheat bran (1.0 kg) can meet the nutritional requirement of a buffalo producing upto 5kg milk.
Fruit wastes: These consist of solid wastes (trimmings, peels, leaves, stems, discarded crops) and liquid wastes containing, sugars, starch and other organic components leached from the product. The availability of such waste varies according to the technology of processing and is difficult to assess for lack of data on the quantities of fruits and vegetables actually processed. Damaged apples (broken or injured during plucking and unfit for packing) are available during the apple season. After slicing, drying and grinding, these can be incorporated as energy sources up to 30% level in concentrate mixtures of crossbred calves replacing 100 % maize. The material is good source of energy but protein content is very low. Feeding orange pomace and wheat straw (70:30) silage increased milk yield of crossbred cows without affecting composition of milk as compared to feeding of fresh mixture of orange pomace and wheat straw or paddy straw. Similarly jackfruit waste can replace one third of concentrate mixture without any adverse effect on feed intake and milk yield in cows.
Seaweed: Historical records show that the use of sea weeds in agriculture is very old and some species are used as feed and fodder for pig, horse, chicken, cattle and buffaloes. Vitamin content is higher as compared to wheat and milk. There is possibility of using these seaweeds either after drying or preserved with chemicals before using as ruminant feed. Agar agar is being extracted from Sargussam seaweed and its byproducts can be used in complete feeds for livestock feeding. This byproduct contains about 10% CP and 67% organic matter.