Byproducts high in energy and nitrogen
Byproducts in this category include products such as blood meal and poultry offal meal, fish meal, extracted oilseed meals/cakes and waste vegetables such as carrots. Care is needed to ensure that potentially toxic compounds are recognized and that the inclusion of the byproduct in the complete diet will not adversely affect flavour and acceptability. Thus it is not recommended to use blood meal in calf complete diets. There is also a need to ensure that the byproducts do not deteriorate during storage.
Blood meal: Blood meal is a major slaughterhouse byproduct but much of it is wasted. Coagulating the blood by steaming or by boiling, then drying and milling usually makes it a potential ingredient in the poultry feeds. Blood can also be soaked on wheat bran/rice bran and then dried. Blood meal contains over 80% protein but poor is in Ca and P. as such it is unpalatable to animals. However, supplementation of basal cereal free complete diet with 3, 6 and 9 % of blood meal gave performance similar as the control ration containing 10% fish meal.
Poultry offal meal: Offal meal, a byproduct of poultry dressing plant is available for use as a meal. It consists of head, feet, lungs, wind pipe, oil glands and intestines. After processing it in a valuable protein source and contains about 58% protein and
2910kcal ME/kg. offal meal is poor in methionine and lysine. Its inclusion in poultry complete feed beyond 2.5% lowers the overall performance of birds.
Fish meal: Fish meal is the most valuable byproduct and has been accepted as balanced source of protein for poultry, swine, newborn growing calves, lambs and kids.
Frog meal: Frog meal is a left over of the frog leg industry. About 1000 tonnes of this byproduct are available annually alone in Kerala. It contains about 60% protein and can replace fish meal twice by weight in the poultry complete diets both for growth and production.
Other oilseed cakes
Groundnut, soybean, mustard, linseed, til, cottonseed and coconut cakes/meals are conventional protein supplements and costly items for animal production. All these cakes had 30-45% CP and high energy value. In addition to annually cultivated crops, there are many oil bearing perennial trees, for example sal, rubber, mahua, castor, kosum, niger, karanj etc. all these fall into the category of unconventional oilseed cakes/meals. In India, the potential of unconventional oilseeds available from these trees is estimated to be 6.7 million tonnes to yield about 1.0 million tonnes of oil and remaining available as cakes. However, due to lack of facilities and awareness only about 3.5% of total potential is collected and utilized.