The disease is caused by an orthopox virus, closely related to the vaccinia virus. It is not clear whether it should be considered a separate virus or not. By RE mapping the causative virus is indistinguishable from vaccinia virus although it is reported from buffalo-raising countries including India, Pakistan, Egypt, Italy and former USSR. The disease occurs in India in both generalized and localized forms, the latter being more common. It causes lesions commonly in teats, udder, inner thigh, lips and nostrils. The disease is of zoonotic importance manifesting lesions on the hands and fingers of milkers. The methods of treatment and prevention are similar to those recommended for cow-pox. Since buffalo wallow in marshy places, care should be taken to see that the wounds are cleaned well and kept free from flies. Buffalo-pox vaccine has been developed recently by IVRI, Mukteswar.