Botulism, Biology

Botulism

It is a toxicity in chickens, turkeys, ducks and other aquatic birds caused by a bacterial toxin produced by anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum mainly types A and C. The toxin produced in decaying carcass and plant waste is consumed by the birds or the birds infected with Cl. botulinum may produce it in the cecum. Morbidity is usually low but mortality is high.

Symptoms and lesions: The birds show nervous signs, progressive flaccid paralysis of legs and wings before death or in peracute cases, sudden death. When neck muscles are affected, the head hangs limp, thus causing a condition referred to as limberneck. Affected birds may have a peculiar trembling, loose feathers that are pulled out easily and dull partly closed eyes. In most of the cases, there are no PM lesions. In others, severe enteritis may be seen.

Diagnosis: Clinical history and signs may be adequate to diagnose the condition. For confirmation, biological test is done in mice. The supernatant of the centrifuged intestinal contents (particularly from cecae) of the dead bird, membrane filtered and inoculated into mice will kill them quickly.

Prevention and control: Biosecurity is the best way of prevention. Preventing access to toxin, suspect food and stagnant ponds, especially in hot weather is an adequate method.

Posted Date: 9/18/2012 8:38:07 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Botulism, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Botulism, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Botulism Discussions

Write discussion on Botulism
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Excretory organ for protozoa

Q. Concerning their permeability how are membranes classified? Membranes can be classified as permeable, impermeable, selectively permeable or semipermeable. An impermeable

Illustrate metabolic processes of vitamin B In the human and animal metabolism, they form a functional unit, since, as components of the various coenzymes, they are essential

Problem 1: How do you differentiate between a dossier and a submission document? Define dossier Define submission document differentiate between a dossier and a

Protozoans - Regeneration in Invertebrates Most single celled animals such as protists, i.e. protozoans, regenerate very well. If part of the cytoplasm is removed from the

The left atrium is a thin walled cavity. Most of the wall is smooth. Musculi pectinati are present only in the auricle of the atrium. The interatrial septum separates the cavity of

The epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is closely connected with that of group-A beta haemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, both have a maximum incidence in the age group

Define Swollen and Tender Joints and haemorrhage in various Tissues? Haemorrhages occur deep in muscle, particularly in calf, thigh, buttocks and forearm, causing pain in surro

What are the hormones secreted by the neurohypophysis? What are their respective functions? The neurohypophysis secretes oxytocin and the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Oxytoci

Explain detail about the Golgi Bodies Eukaryotic cells possess, within the cytoplasm, a complex organisation of a cluster of membrane-surrounded vesicles called the Golgi bodie