Bond with call and prepay options, Financial Management

Let us consider a bond with callable or prepayable feature. Figure shows the price/yield relationship of option-free bond and callable bond. The price yield relationship of option-free bond is represented by the convex curve a - a'. The price yield relationship of the callable bond is represented by the unusual curve a -b.

When market yield for comparable bonds is higher than the coupon rate on the callable bond then issuer will not call the bond. For example, if the coupon rate on a bond is 8% and the prevailing market yield on comparable bond is 13%, then undoubtedly issuer will not call the bond. Because the issuer of the bond is unlikely to call it, the price/yield relationship of callable bond is equal to the option-free bond. Therefore, the callable bond is valued as an option free bond. However call option still has some value, so the bond is not exactly priced like an option free bond.

If yield decreases in the market then there is a chance that issuer will call the bond. It is not necessary that issuer exercise the call option as market yield drops below the coupon rate. However, as yield approaches the coupon rate from higher yield level, the value of the embedded option increases. For example, assume that yield decreases from 13% to 8.75%; then it is most likely that issuer will not exercise the call option. But the issuer would probably exercise his right to call if the market yield declines further. The call option becomes more valuable to the issuer in this circumstance, thus reducing the price of the callable bond when compared to that of a comparable option-free bond. In figure 5, the value of the embedded call option at a given yield can be measured by the difference between the price of an option-free bond and the price on the curve a - b. We can also notice that at low yield levels, the value of the embedded call option is high.

Let us see how the price volatility property of a callable bond is different from that of an option-free bond. Figure 6 magnifies the portion of the price/yield relationship for the callable bond where the two curves in the figure depart. (Segment b - b' in figure ). As per property 4, when there is a large change in yield of a given number of basis points, the price of an option-free bond increases more than it decreases. But in case of a callable bond, the opposite is true i.e. for a given large change in the yield, the price of the bond appreciation is less than the price decline.

Let us look into the price volatility characteristic of a callable bond. From figure 1 it is clear that the curve has a concave shape. In financial terms, this is referred to as negative convexity. This characteristic of callable bond is not exhibited at every yield level.

When yield is high (in comparison to coupon rate), the bond shows same price/yield relationship as an option-free bond; and therefore at this level the gain is greater than the loss. The price/yield relationship of a option-free bond is referred to as positive convexity. Therefore, for a callable bond, we see negative convexity character at low yield levels and positive convexity character at high yield levels. This is illustrated in figure 2.

Figure 1: Negative Convexity Region of the Price/Yield Relationship for a Callable bond

1555_negative convexity.png

Figure 2: Negative and Positive Convexity Exhibited by Callable bond

1114_negative convexity1.png

We see in Figure 7 that at certain yield levels, when rates decline there is very little price appreciation. A bond is said to exhibit "price compression," when it enters this region.

Posted Date: 9/10/2012 4:19:50 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Bond with call and prepay options, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Bond with call and prepay options, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Bond with call and prepay options Discussions

Write discussion on Bond with call and prepay options
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Due to the complexity of the tasks involved in many projects, communication of responsibility for those tasks is often helped by means of graphical planning techniques.

Roxanne invested $560,000 in a new business 7 years ago. The business was expected to bring in $8,000 each month for the next 26 years (in excess of all costs). The annual cost of

The Nu-Nu Brothers Inc. (NNBI) has the following capital structure, which it considers to be optional: Debt 25% Preferred Stock 15% Common Equity 60% NNBI''''s expected net income

The issuer's right to call back the issue before the maturity date is referred to as a "call provision". In case of asset-backed securities, the trustee is grante

Identify and explain the key stages in the capital investment decision-making process and the role of investment appraisal in this process.

Q. What is Deposit Method? Deposit Method - Related to sales of real estate, under this method seller doesn't recognize any profits, doesn't record a note RECEIVABLE and contin

Global Economy: The size of the world stock market grew steadily in the 1970s and 1980s and crossed the $12 trillion figure in 1993. The share of the US market decreased tremen

To look into the feasibility of a new production system, K-Pad, the largest P.C. producer in the region, has spent $88,000 on the technical feasibility study. In view of the favora

Explain how the cash budget and the capital budget relate to pro forma financial statements. The cash budget demonstrates the projected flow of cash in and out of the firm fo

I have an assignment due today and needs some help