Birth control - temporary methods, Biology


Birth control methods which deliberately prevent fertilization are contraception.

These methods may be temporary or permanent.


(i)      Safe period (Rhythm method) -

A week before and a week after menses. This idea is based on -

(a)      Ovulation occurs on about 14th day of menses.

(b)      Ovum survives for 1-2 days.

(c)      Sperms remain alive for 3 days.

(ii)     Coitus interruptus (onanism) -

Withdrawal of penis from vagina before ejaculation.

(iii)    Spermicides -

Foam tablets (Today), jellies (Nim-76), pastes, creams (contain lactic acid, citric acid, boric acid, potassium permanganate, zinc sulphate) if introduced into vagina before sexual intercourse kill sperms.

(iv)     Mechanical means -

(a) Condom

A thin sheath made up of rubber to cover erect penis in male.

It is a safeguard against infection of AIDS and sexual diseases.

(b) Diaphragm and cervical cap -

Dom shaped rubber covers that are fitted on the cervix in female's vagina.

(c) Intrauterine device (IUDs) -

Plastic or metal objects placed in the uterus by a doctor. These include loop, copper - T sprial, ring, bow, shield etc. They prevent implantation of fertilized egg.

Ist IUD was used by Graffenberg. It was a silver IUD.

These IUD inactivate sperms, so stop fertilization.

(v)      Physiological devices -

Birth control pills (oral contracaptives) check ovulation by inhibiting secretion of FSH & LH.

Pill mala D is taken daily & Saheli is taken weekly.

Quinestrol is taken monthly.

Male pill is Gossypol. Now a days it is banned because it causes permanent sterility.

(vi)     Other contraceptives -

Progestin minipil are implanted under the skin of the upper arm they prevent pregnancy for 3-4 yrs.

(vii)    Abortion -

It is MTP (Medical termination of pregnancy).

A drug named RU-486 an analogous of progesterone, developed in France terminates pregnancy within the first few weeks.

Destruction of foetes is called foeticide.

(viii)  Abstinence -

The best & 100% reliable way to avoid conception is to abstain from sexual intercourse. It is unnatural.

Posted Date: 10/4/2012 6:42:44 AM | Location : United States

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