BIRTH CONTROL -
Birth control methods which deliberately prevent fertilization are contraception.
These methods may be temporary or permanent.
1. TEMPORARY METHODS -
(i) Safe period (Rhythm method) -
A week before and a week after menses. This idea is based on -
(a) Ovulation occurs on about 14th day of menses.
(b) Ovum survives for 1-2 days.
(c) Sperms remain alive for 3 days.
(ii) Coitus interruptus (onanism) -
Withdrawal of penis from vagina before ejaculation.
(iii) Spermicides -
Foam tablets (Today), jellies (Nim-76), pastes, creams (contain lactic acid, citric acid, boric acid, potassium permanganate, zinc sulphate) if introduced into vagina before sexual intercourse kill sperms.
(iv) Mechanical means -
A thin sheath made up of rubber to cover erect penis in male.
It is a safeguard against infection of AIDS and sexual diseases.
(b) Diaphragm and cervical cap -
Dom shaped rubber covers that are fitted on the cervix in female's vagina.
(c) Intrauterine device (IUDs) -
Plastic or metal objects placed in the uterus by a doctor. These include loop, copper - T sprial, ring, bow, shield etc. They prevent implantation of fertilized egg.
Ist IUD was used by Graffenberg. It was a silver IUD.
These IUD inactivate sperms, so stop fertilization.
(v) Physiological devices -
Birth control pills (oral contracaptives) check ovulation by inhibiting secretion of FSH & LH.
Pill mala D is taken daily & Saheli is taken weekly.
Quinestrol is taken monthly.
Male pill is Gossypol. Now a days it is banned because it causes permanent sterility.
(vi) Other contraceptives -
Progestin minipil are implanted under the skin of the upper arm they prevent pregnancy for 3-4 yrs.
(vii) Abortion -
It is MTP (Medical termination of pregnancy).
A drug named RU-486 an analogous of progesterone, developed in France terminates pregnancy within the first few weeks.
Destruction of foetes is called foeticide.
(viii) Abstinence -
The best & 100% reliable way to avoid conception is to abstain from sexual intercourse. It is unnatural.