Biota of Littoral Zone
This zone is the shore region of the marine ecosystems and is subject to violence of waves and tides, fluctuation of water level and variability of temperature, light, salinity and moisture. In common language supra littoral zone is termed as a beach. Considerable light penetrates the bottom of this zone which is exposed and submerged twice a day except for tide pools. Thus, 'animals living here exist in a difficult environment and so must be either resistant to periodic drying or able to burrow to water level. This zone is thus also called intertidal zone. This intertidal zone or the littoral Bone is a region of high productivity with a simple community, many of whose members may be exceedingly abundant: There is no typical littoral zone, there are two types of beaches; a rocky intertidal beach is different from a sandy beach or a mud flats. However, all have certain things in common.
The wave action is stronger here than anywhere else in the sea. The turbidity is high and the substrate erodes rapidly. There are few species of plants. Those that occur are attached securely to the substrate and may be present in large numbers. The energy requirements of the animal community here depends on the large amount of detritus washed in by the waves. Common animals found here are snails, clams, barnacles, crustaceans, annelids sea anemones and sea urchine.The animals here exhibit zonation with respect to tides - Animals more resistant to desiccation usually occurring at higher levels than those that are less resistant.