Bioclimatology: This is the study of effect of climate on distribution of organisms. Bioclimatology is the inter-disciplinary field of science which studies the interactions between the biosphere and the Earth's atmosphere on time scales of the order of seasons. Climate processes mostly control the distribution, shape, size or properties of living organisms on Earth. Changes in climates, whether it is due to natural processes or to human interferences, can progressively modify these habitats or cause over population & extinction of indigenous species.
The biosphere is playing a critical role in establishing or maintaining the chemical composition of the Earth's atmosphere, generally during the early evolution of the planet. Currently, the terrestrial vegetation exchanges about 60 billion tons of carbon with the atmosphere on an annual basis through the processes of respiration or photosynthesis , thereby playing a critical role in the carbon cycle. On a global or annual basis, small imbalances between these two major fluxes that is respiration or photosynthesis occur through changes in land cover & land use, contribute to the current increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide.