Basis of scientific methods, Operation Research

The scientific methods is based on certain article of path these are:

1. Reliance on Evidence: Truth is established on the basis of evidence. Conclusion is admitted only when it is based on evidence. Scientific methods involves a systematic process. The answer to a question is not decided by intuition or imagination. Relevant data are collected through observation or experimentation. The validity and the reliability of data are checked carefully and the data are analyzed thoroughly using appropriate methods of analysis. Conclusion is reached on the basis of the results of analysis.

2. Use of concepts: We experience a vast number of facts through our senses. acts are things which actually exists. In order to deal with them we use concepts with specific meanings. concepts are logical constructs or abstraction created from sense impressions percept s and experiences. They are symbols representing the meaning that we hold. We use them in our thinking and communication. Otherwise clarity and correct understanding cannot be achieved.

3. Commitment to Objectivity: Objectivity is the hallmark of the scientific method. It means forming a judgement upon facts unbiased by personal impressions. According to green objectivity is the willingness and ability to examine evidence dispassionately. The conclusion should not vary from person to person. It should be the same for all persons. A person of science must above all each individual mind as his own.

4. Ethical Neutrality: Science does not pass normative judgement on facts,. It does not say that they are good or bad. As schroedniger says science never imposes anything science states science aims at nothing but making true and adequate statements about its objects.

5. Generalization: Scientists are not concerned with isolated events but with the commonality of a series of event. They aim at discovering under the surface layer of diversity the thread of uniformity. Around a discovered uniformity a logical class and its observed pattern a descriptive generalization is formulated. In formulating a generalization we should avoid the danger of committing the particularistic fallacy which a arises through an inclination to generalize on insufficient or incomplete and unrelated data. This can be avoided by the accumulation of a large body of data by the employment of comparisons and control groups.

6. Verifiability: The conclusions arrived at by a scientist should be verifiable. He must make known to others how he arrived at his conclusions. He should thus expose his own methods and conclusions to critical scrutiny. When others test his conclusion under the same condition then it is accepted as correct. Such verification through replication may either confirm established conclusions or modify them or even invalidate them. For example originally an atom was considered to be indivisible but subsequent researches have proved that it is divisible and thus provided the basis for developing atomic energy.

7. Logical Reasoning Process: The scientific methods involves the logical process of reasoning this reasoning process is used for drawing inference from the finding of a study or for arriving at conclusion. For example in a survey of the expenditure pattern on basic necessaries forms a very high proportion of the total expenditure it is concluded that lower the household income the higher is the proportion spent on basic necessaries. The logical reasoning process consists of induction and deduction

Posted Date: 3/19/2013 4:09:00 AM | Location : United States

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