Balance sheet, Financial Management

Balance Sheet:

The balance sheet measures the financial position of the business at a particular point in time.  It is also called Statement of Financial Position.

The balance sheet is a statement of assets, liabilities and owner's equity. The balance sheet shows what a business owns versus what the business owes.

Simply put, the balance sheet follows the fundamental accounting equation of: 


Assets can be described as what the business has under its control. Liabilities are what the business owes to parties outside of the business (creditors, banks). Owner's equity is the portion of the values of assets not covered by the value of the liabilities.

Consider your house. It is an asset, owned by you and financed partly by a bank via a mortgage.

If the house is worth $450,000 and the outstanding balance of the housing loan was $250,000, your balance sheet would look as follows:

ASSETS ($450,000) = LIABILITIES ($250,000) + OWNER'S EQUITY ($200,000)

Some terminology used in the context of the balance sheet includes:

  • Current Asset: a short term asset available to be used by the business generally at no longer than 12 months notice. Examples include cash at bank.
  • Non-Current Assets: a long term asset. Generally cannot be turned into cash within 12 months. Examples include buildings that the business owns or plant and equipment.
  • Current Liabilities: short term liabilities, usually payable within 12 months. Examples include trade debts (accounts payable), short term borrowings.
  • Non-current Liabilities: long term liabilities generally not payable within 12 months. Examples include long term debt (such as mortgage finance to purchase property).
  • Capital: the amount invested in the business by the owner. This amount, in effect, is owed by the business to the owner.

A typical balance sheet could look as follows:

Brown Partner's Real Estate

Balance Sheet as at 30 June 2008 

Assets ($)

Liability and Owner's equity

Cash                            100,000

Debtors                         20,000

Deposits                          6,000


Creditors                     20,000

Bank Overdraft             5,000

Other                           12,000


Total Current Assets                        126,000


Equipment/Fit out        80,000

Motor Vehicle              20,000


Total Non-Current Assets               100,000

Total Current Liabilities                     37,000


Bank Loan                   25,000



Total Non-Current Liabilities            25,000





Capital                                                                                      84,000

Profit YE 30/6/08                                                                                80,000


Owner's Equity                                 164,000

Total Assets                                      226,000


Total Liabilities & Equity                 226,000

Posted Date: 10/1/2012 4:35:13 AM | Location : United States

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