Sheep and goats
The disease is readily transmissible to human being from goats, and is known as Malta fever, Mediterranean fever or undulant fever. The chief causal agent is Br. melitensis. Br. ovis is the cause in some of the temperate countries. The organism also infects other animals including cattle and swine.
Transmission: A large number of organisms are eliminated during abortion. The mode of entry is by ingestion or via conjunctiva. The aborted foetus, vaginal discharges and milk from infected goats contain a large number of organisms.
Symptoms: State of abortion may occur in infected sheep and goats followed by a quiescent period during which a few abortions occur. The aborting animals do not breed.
Lesions: Gross lesions are almost absent in the spleen and other organs although a large number of organisms can be recovered from these organs.
Diagnosis: It is not possible to diagnose brucellosis on the basis of symptoms alone. The suspicion is aroused when humans in contact suffer from undulant fever, and there is poor breeding record in goat herd and evidence of mastitis. The diagnosis can be done by the isolation of organisms and by serological tests.
Treatment-There is no adequate treatment.
Control: This is based on hygiene, vaccination, testing and disposal. Good management practice is essential. Separate quarters should be provided for kidding. Immunization can be done with attenuated (Rev 1) as well as killed vaccines (H-38). However, there is no vaccine available for prophylaxis in India. The test and disposal procedure is highly desirable.