Automated Reasoning - first-order logic:
The topic known as "Automated Reasoning" in "AI"concentrates mostly on deductive reasoning, here new facts are logically deduced from old ones. It is important to remember that this is only one type of reasoning, and there are many others. In particular, in our lectures on machine learning later, we cover the notion of inductive reasoning, in fact there new facts are guessed at, using empirical evidence.
Automated Reasoning is, at present, mostly based on how we wish we reasoned: logically, following prescribed rules to start from a set of things we know are true is just called axioms, and end with new knowledge about our world. The way we truly reason is much more sloppy: we use creativity, refer to previous examples, perform analogies, stay for divine inspiration, and rapidly. To make this more precise, that automated reasoning agents are just more formal in their reasoning than humans.