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Ascertainment bias: A feasible form of bias, particularly in the retrospective studies, which arises from the relationship between the exposure to the risk factor and the probability of detecting an event of interest. In the research comparing women with cervical cancer and the control group, for instance, an excess of oral contraceptive use with the cases might possibly be due to more often screening for the disease among the women known to be taking the pill.

A diagram illustrating the feed-forward network.

#### Maximum likelihood estimation, Maximum likelihood estimation is an estimat...

Maximum likelihood estimation is an estimation procedure involving maximization of the likelihood or the log-likelihood with respect to the parameters. Such type of estimators is

#### Gllamm, Gllamm is a program which estimates the generalized linear latent ...

Gllamm is a program which estimates the generalized linear latent and mixed models by the maximum likelihood. The models which can be fitted include structural equation models mul

#### Bayes factor, Bayes factor : A summary of evidence for the modelM1 against ...

Bayes factor : A summary of evidence for the modelM1 against the another modelM0 provided by the set of data D, which can be used in the model selection. Given by the ratio of post

#### Tests for heteroscedasticity, Lagrange Multiplier (LM) test The Null Hy...

Lagrange Multiplier (LM) test The Null Hypothesis - H0: There is no heteroscedasticity i.e. β 1 = 0 The Alternative Hypothesis - H1:  There is heteroscedasticity i.e. β 1

#### Expert systems, The computer programs designed to mimic the role of the exp...

The computer programs designed to mimic the role of the expert human consultant. This type of systems are capable to cope with the complex problems of the medical decision makin

#### Biplots, Biplots: It is the multivariate analogue of the scatter plots, wh...

Biplots: It is the multivariate analogue of the scatter plots, which estimates the multivariate distribution of the sample in a few dimensions, typically two and superimpose on th

#### Define interval-censored observations, Interval-censored observations ar...

Interval-censored observations are the  observations which often occur in the context of studies of time elapsed to the particular event when subjects are not monitored regularl

#### Data theory, Data theory is anxious with how observations are transformed i...

Data theory is anxious with how observations are transformed into data which can be analyzed. Data are thus viewed as the theory laden in the sense that the observations can be giv

#### Estimation, The process of providing the numerical value for the population...

The process of providing the numerical value for the population parameter on the basis of information gathered from a sample. If a single ?gure is computed for the unknown paramete

#### Doubly ordered contingency tables, The contingency tables in which the row ...

The contingency tables in which the row and column both the categories follow a natural order. An instance for this might be, drug toxicity ranging from mild to severe, against the