Approach to reasoning - first-order logic:
The formal approach to reasoning has bigger return and disadvantages. In generally we notice, if a computer program has proved something fairly complex (for instance that a circuit board functions as specified), then people are more happy to accept the proof than one done by a human. This is because there is much less room for error in a well-written automated reasoning program. On the other hand, by being less formal, humans can often skip around the search space much more efficiently and prove more complicated results. Humans are still much more gifted at deducing things than computers are likely to be any time soon.
In order to understand how "AI" researchers gave agents the ability to reason, if we just first look at how information about the world in long term is represented using first-order logic. So after this it will lead us into the programming language Prolog, and we will use Prolog to demonstrate a simple but effective type of "AI" program known as an professional system.