(1) Electron microscopy is widely used in metallurgy, biology, material science, physics, chemistry, and many other technological fields. The development of the electron microscope revolutionized the bioscience, allowing organelles such as mitochondria, ER and membranes to be seen in detail for the first time.
(2) The complexities of cellular structure, the fine structure of metals and crystalline materials as well as numerous other areas of the microscopic world can easily be understand on basis of Electron microscopy.
(1) The main problem with the electron microscope is that specimens must be fixed in plastic and viewed in a vacuum, and must therefore be dead.
(2) The electron beam can damage the specimens and they must be stained with an electron dense chemical (usually heavy metals like lead or gold).