## Antenna fundamentals, Electrical Engineering

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Antenna Fundamentals

We shall discuss here only the fundamental concepts needed to understand the role of an antenna as a power-coupling element of a system. Figure illustrates the elements of a communication

system that involves antennas (with no conductors in the propagation medium) and the following nomenclature:

Pt Power generated by the transmitter

Lt, Lr Transmitting-path loss (representing the power reduction caused by the transmission line or waveguide that connects to the transmitting antenna) and receiving-path loss

Lta, Lra Transmitting antenna loss and receiving antenna loss

R Distance of separation between the antennas

S Signal power available at the lossless antenna output

Sr Signal power available at the receiver input

Radio transmission consists of antennas at the source and at the destination. It requires the signal to be modulated on a high-frequency carrier, which usually is a sinusoid. Driven by an appropriate carrier, the transmitting antenna launches an electromagnetic wave that propagates through space without the help of a transmission line. A portion of the radiated power is collected at the receiving antenna.

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