Source of Energy and Protein
The by-products obtained from grain processing (brans), oil seed processing (oil meals) and pulses processing industries are the major and important feed ingredients that are commonly fed to Indian livestock as concentrate feeds. Almost all the quantities of these by-products produced in the country are utilized as livestock feed except the quantities exported to other countries. These by-products are considered as traditional or conventional feedstuffs. The brans are the main energy source of the total concentrate feeds produced in the country.Other important protein sources are oil meals constituting major component of the total concentrate feeds produced. Thus, these two industrial by-products cover more than 70 % of the total concentrate feeds fed to Indian livestock. Though there exists a wide gap between availability and requirement of concentrate feeds in the country, still brans and oil meals are sometimes exported causing severe setback for economic livestock production in the country.