Anaemia, Biology

Anaemia

It is defined as decrease in the amount of haemoglobin (Hb) per unit of blood. This may or may not be accompanied by a reduction in the red blood cells (RBCs). A decrease in the quantity of Hb limits the oxygen supply to various tissues. Anaemia itself is not a disease but a sign of disturbance in the haemopoietic system.

Etiology: It may be classified as haemorrhagic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, and nutritional anaemia. Haemorrhagic anaemia is caused by abomasal ulcer, bovine enzootic haematuria, pyelonephritis, castration, dehorning, traumatic pericarditis, liverfluke infestation, nasal bleeding, rupture of spleen or liver, heavy infestation of blood sucking worms, lice or ticks, and traumatic injury to a blood vessel. Haemolytic anaemia is caused by babesiosis, anaplasmosis, theileriosis, trypanosomiasis, bacillary haemoglobinuria, leptospirosis, post-parturient haemoglobinuria, drinking of cold water by calves, transfusion reaction, copper poisoning, haemoglobinuria in snake bite and phenothiazine poisoning. Nutritional anaemia occurs owing to deficiency of copper, cobalt, iron, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine and choline.

Anaemia can also be classified on the basis of morphology as microcytic normochromic, microcytic hypochromic, normocytic normochromic, normocytic hypochromic, macrocytic normochromic and macrocytic hypochromic.

Clinical signs: Most important clinical sign is pallor mucous membranes. There is muscular weakness, depression, inappetance, weak pulse, dyspnoea and increase in heart rate and intensity of heart sounds, edema, jaundice or haemoglobinuria.

Diagnosis: Faecal examination may be done to exclude gastrointestinal parasites. Blood smear is prepared to look for parasites. Morphology of red blood cells is important. PCV, Hb, RBC, MCH, MCHC and MCV may be estimated to know the nature of anaemia. Reduced total plasma protein gives a clue for haemorrhagic anaemia.

Treatment: T he primary cause of anemia should be treated for effective management. Blood transfusion is recommended in acute haemorrhage. Haematinic therapy such as iron dextran injections or iron, copper and cobalt mixture orally, should be given for blood cell formation.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:07:25 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Anaemia, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Anaemia, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Anaemia Discussions

Write discussion on Anaemia
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Why does one need to study about soil and what is  its importance? You would be aware that, from the dawn of agriculture, cultivators were attracted to fertile soils of river


Maturation and adaptation: (18 to 54 weeks) The final stage involves maturation and adaptation of the implant-bone interface, peri-implant bone and the entire implant supportin

A protein that is normally a single-pass transmembrane protein is absent from the cell surface of the mutant cell line YTM-15. When labeled so that the protein can be localized, yo


Explain about the Diabetes mellitus? You are aware that diabetes may be diagnosed as an exaggerated response in blood glucose concentration following ingestion of a fixed amou

Restriction endonucleases are enzymes which: 1. make cuts at specific positions within the DNA molecule 2. recognize a specific nucleotide sequence for binding of DNA ligase

Define Meal Pattern and Feeding Considerations? The meal pattern and the feeding considerations include the following: - Meal timings play an important role in ensuring adeq

1. Compute the mean energy per nuclear disintegration, A, for 99m TC if 2.0 x 10 9 Bq of this isotope is injected into a patient. Assume that one-half of the administered dose is

Outline the steps involved in using bacteria to produce human insulin. The gene for insulin is 'cut' from the appropriate strand of DNA using restriction enzymes. Plasmids are