Anaemia, Biology

Anaemia

It is defined as decrease in the amount of haemoglobin (Hb) per unit of blood. This may or may not be accompanied by a reduction in the red blood cells (RBCs). A decrease in the quantity of Hb limits the oxygen supply to various tissues. Anaemia itself is not a disease but a sign of disturbance in the haemopoietic system.

Etiology: It may be classified as haemorrhagic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, and nutritional anaemia. Haemorrhagic anaemia is caused by abomasal ulcer, bovine enzootic haematuria, pyelonephritis, castration, dehorning, traumatic pericarditis, liverfluke infestation, nasal bleeding, rupture of spleen or liver, heavy infestation of blood sucking worms, lice or ticks, and traumatic injury to a blood vessel. Haemolytic anaemia is caused by babesiosis, anaplasmosis, theileriosis, trypanosomiasis, bacillary haemoglobinuria, leptospirosis, post-parturient haemoglobinuria, drinking of cold water by calves, transfusion reaction, copper poisoning, haemoglobinuria in snake bite and phenothiazine poisoning. Nutritional anaemia occurs owing to deficiency of copper, cobalt, iron, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine and choline.

Anaemia can also be classified on the basis of morphology as microcytic normochromic, microcytic hypochromic, normocytic normochromic, normocytic hypochromic, macrocytic normochromic and macrocytic hypochromic.

Clinical signs: Most important clinical sign is pallor mucous membranes. There is muscular weakness, depression, inappetance, weak pulse, dyspnoea and increase in heart rate and intensity of heart sounds, edema, jaundice or haemoglobinuria.

Diagnosis: Faecal examination may be done to exclude gastrointestinal parasites. Blood smear is prepared to look for parasites. Morphology of red blood cells is important. PCV, Hb, RBC, MCH, MCHC and MCV may be estimated to know the nature of anaemia. Reduced total plasma protein gives a clue for haemorrhagic anaemia.

Treatment: T he primary cause of anemia should be treated for effective management. Blood transfusion is recommended in acute haemorrhage. Haematinic therapy such as iron dextran injections or iron, copper and cobalt mixture orally, should be given for blood cell formation.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:07:25 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Anaemia, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Anaemia, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Anaemia Discussions

Write discussion on Anaemia
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Which of the following cells of the immune system is most likely to be directly involved in the rejection of a transplant? Answer plasma cells eosinophils basophils T lymphocytes m

Work Injuries Based On Type of Accidents Earlier we identified four kinds of injuries mainly based upon type of disability. This classification is needed for the purposes of c

What is the objective of genesis of coronary artery diseases and risk factors ? After reading this unit, you should be able to: Understand the genesis of CAD; 1 learns about th

How does the substrate concentration affect the speed of enzymatic reactions? Initially as substrate concentration increases, the speed of the reaction enhances; this happens b

Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

Q. Etiologic factor of ulcerative colitis? No single etiologic factor has been identified although genetic auto-immune factors are thought to be involved. Although exacerbation

Define protein requirements of children up to age of 2 years? Infants and children up to age of 2 years should consume about 40% energy from fat (i.e. 40 en%). Fat is an import

a) A recombinant DNA is formed when sticky ends of vector DNA and foreign DNA join. b) Define how the sticky ends are formed and get joined.

Explain the Transfer from liquid medium to solid media? Here the steps involved include: 1. Inoculating loop is sterilized by incineration and allowed to cool, as described

Determine the Symptoms of bacillus cereus Extremely large numbers (10 8 per gram) of viable cells of B. cereus must be ingested to develop signs and symptoms of the syndrome.