Aluminum ,thallium, Chemistry

 

GROUP 13: ALUMINUM TO THALLIUM

The substance aluminum, indium, gallium and thallium have valence electron configurations (ns)2(np)1 and for the lighter elements their chemistry is dominated by the +3 oxidation state. The group trends are very different from those in groups 2 and 1. The Al3+ ion has a large radius ratio and is rigidly polarizing, so that significant deviations from simple ionic behavior are usually observed. The filling of the d shells (and 4f in period 6) goes to decreased electropositive character for Tl and Ga, In similar to that shown in group 12. There is also a progressive stabilization of lower oxidation states in lower side of the group.

Aluminum is common metallic element in the Earth's crust, being a constituent of almost all silicate minerals. Weathering leaves deposits of the very insoluble aluminum minerals Al(OH)3 and AlO(OH), known together as bauxite, which forms the principal source of the element. The metal is produce by electrolysis of fused cryolite Na3[AlF6]. Although reactive when clean, the metal easily builds a very resistant oxide film, which performs widespread applications as a lightweight construction material and in other vessels and cooking.

 

 

1937_Untitled.png

 

 

In, Ga and Tl are much less common substance, collect in small amounts from sulfide minerals of other elements and used only in specialized applications. The metals are less performing than aluminum in which the much bigger negative slope (negative electrode potential of Al is apparent. Thallium elements are extremely toxic but do not usually pose an environmental hazard because they are little used.

 

Posted Date: 7/23/2012 7:20:41 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Aluminum ,thallium, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Aluminum ,thallium, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Aluminum ,thallium Discussions

Write discussion on Aluminum ,thallium
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
In neutral atom, which particles are equivalent: (1) P + e +                               (2 ) e - e +                (3) e -, P +                              (

What are the physical and chemical properties of lactic acid?

Predicting the feasibility of reaction and does not show the rate of chemical reaction

I don''t understand the concept of normality and gram equivalent

The high melting point and insolubility in organic solvents of sulphanilic acid are due to its ...... structure: (1) Simple ionic                                 (2) Bipolar

What is a salt bridge? Salt bridge is a device used to link two electrodes on electrochemical cell. It maintains electrical neutrality and internal continuity. It is shown by

Q.   A sample of water analysis was found to contain temporary magnesium hardness 25 mg/L. Permanent magnesium chloride hardness 15 mg/L and permanent calcium sulphate hardness 20

Explain in brief hubles test for any test splution

Longest chain Rule - IUPAC system of nomenclature The primary step in naming an organic compound is to choose the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms that may or may not

I''ve got a very difficult assignment due in and I need help!