Alcoholism, Biology

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ALCOHOLISM -

  1. Continual heavy consuming of alcohol is called alcoholism or drinking.
  2. Word alcohol is refered to C2H5OH or ethyl alcohol or ethanol or grain alcohol.
  3. An alcohol can be identified by a breath test and urine test (alcoholuria).
  4. Alcohol can cross brain blood barrier & placenta.
  5. C2H5OH is volatile, flammable, colour less liquid having a penetrating odour and burning taste.
  6. It is one of products of distillation of fermented grains, fruit juices, sugar, dry dates, beets, molasses and starch by enzymes from yeast (zymase).
  7. Absolute alcohol is occasionally used by injection for the relief of trigeminal pain.
  8. Rectified spirit (90% alcohol) is widely used in the preparation of tinctures.
  9. Methylated spirit (95% alcohol with wood nephtha) is used for ext. application as an antiseptic.
  10. Alcohol is also used as a stomachic (agent that improves appetite and digestion), sedative & antipyretic.
  11. Alcohol enhances the action of tranquillizers and barbiturates.
  12. It is quickly absorbed in the stomach and upper part of small intestine.
  13. Oxidation of alcohol starts at once and large amount of heat is produced, which gives false impression of warmth or power in the body.
  14. Less than 5% of alcohol is excreted in the breath, sweat & urine. Most of it is eliminated by hepatic oxidation.
  15. Alcohol is first oxidised in the liver to acetaldehyde which is further oxidized to acetate accumulation of acetaldehyde causes hang over.
  16. Later is changed to acetyle co enzyme A, which is used up in the kreb's cycle.

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