Agro industrial-non-edible and other minor oilseed cakes, Biology


Besides the annually cultivated oilseed crops namely, groundnut, sesame, mustard, linseed, coconut, cotton, sunflower and safflower, India possesses different oilseed bearing perennial trees. Because of the current shortage of vegetable oils, it has become necessary to search for other sources particularly the non-edible oilseeds. The potential of minor oilseeds available from perennial trees in the forests, roadsides and other places is quite substantial. However, due to lack of organized collection facilities and poor remuneration of collectors only about 3.5 % of total potential is collected and utilized.

Sal (Shorea robusta) seed meal: There is about 5,000 of area under sal in sub-Himalayan forests and has got a potential of about 55 million tonnes of sal kernel and 6 million tonnes of fat. A large quantity of deoiled sal seed meal is available for livestock feeding after oil extraction. Sal seed meal contains about7 % crude protein but digestibility of protein is negligible with the result that it serves only as a source of energy with a TDN value of 45 %. It is rich in tannins which may vary from 8-13 %. There has been conflicting reports from the various research centers in India regarding the utilization of deoiled sal seed meal as a component of animal ration.In poultry, sal seed meal has been successfully incorporated in the grower and layer mashes up to a level of 5 and 10 % respectively. For finisher pigs sal seed meal has been successfully utilized without affecting the growth rate but feed efficiency was depressed when sal seed meal was incorporated in the rations weight by weight basis in place of maize. In growing pigs it has got growth depressing effect.

Neem (Azadirachta indica) Cake: Neem is a large evergreen tree which is a native of India. Neem oil is being used in soap industry resulting in an annual production of about 0.7 million tonnes of deoiled seem seed cake. The crude protein content of the  deoild neem seed cake has been reported to range from 11 to 35 %. The cake is very bitter and so exclusively it is not palatable. It can be used as a component of a palatable concentrate mixture. It contains 8.4 % DCP and 57.8 % TDN. Incorporation of de-oiled neem seed cake at 10 % level of concentrate mixture as a 25 % replacement of groundnut cake nitrogen has a depressing effect on growth rate in calves due to the presence of bitter and toxic triterpenoids. The workers at IVRI, Izatnagar observed that alkali treated neem seed cake is palatable to the cross-bred calves when it is included at 50 % level of concentrate mixture, but the growth response was inferior to control ration. Water treatment of neem seed cake improves its palatability and nutritive value. The sundried and ground alkali treated and urea ammoniated neem seed kernel was found to be suitable in feeding of cattle, buffalo calves, growing calves and kids.

Mahua (Madhuca indica) Cake: The cake obtained from only 20 % of the mahua seeds being collected is utilized for animal feeding. Two types of cakes are available in the market, namely the expeiler extracted and solvent extracted. The cake contains saponins (mowrine) due to which it is not palatable. It contains 15-24 % protein and also about 2 % of bitter glucoside mowrine. It has been reported that when mowrine is given through mouth it does not show any obvious signs of toxicity but when given intramuscularly/subcutaneously it produces toxicity. This obviously shows that saponins are destroyed by ruminants to VFA and carbon dioxide. The cake contains 8.64 % DCP and 45.6 % TDN and has been successfully used as a component of growth production ration in the cross-bred animals after steeping it in the water to remove the saponins as a substitute for the bran.

Castor (Recinus Communis) Bean Meal:
The castor seed cake is one of the inedible protein rich by-products of oil industry which contains 30-40% protein. The cake is mainly used as manure due to the presence of toxins such as ricin, ricinine, allergen and chlorogenic acid. Out of the four toxic principles, ricin has haemagglutinating and proteolyic activities and is a major toxic compound. Incorporation of caster cake even at 10% level in growing cattle reduces the feed intake and depresses the growth response. Steam treatment of the cake reduces the toxicity substantially.

Virginia Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Seed Cake: Tobacco seed yields about 25 % of oil by the expeller method which is in vogue at present. The cake is mostly used as a manure. It contains about 26 % protein, 20 % crude fiber and 7 % ash. It is possible to replace the entire concentrate component in the rations of the bullocks by tobacco seed cake with gradual replacement of a standard concentrate mixture. However, in practice it should be fed in conjunction with other conventional concentrates in order to make it acceptable to livestock. Dairy cows in milk required large quantity of concentrates according to the milk production where feeding of such by-products as a sole concentrate becomes impracticable.

Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis) Cake:
India has a got a big potential for producing rubber seed. Kerala state has got an estimated potential of 150,000 tonnes of rubber seed cake. Rubber seed consists of approximately 40 % shell and 60 % kernel. The cake contains 18.6 % DCP and 54.0 % TDN for cattle and can economically  be used at 20 % level in the concentrate mixture of growing calves and milch cattle without any adverse effect on the growth rate and milk yield. The Kernel of rubber seed cake contains a powerful active lipolytic enzyme and a cyanogenetic glycoside, which decomposes later on.

Karanj (Pongamia Globra) cake: The karanj seeds contain about 28-29% of oil. The cake left after oil extraction is unpalatable and toxic. Even at lower level of dietry incorporation it causes toxic symptoms in the animals due to the presence of ‘Karanjine’ a furano flavanoid. Most of the toxins are fat soluble and are removed after oil extraction. The solvent extracted cake is a good source of protein (25% DCP) and energy (62% TDN). The cake contains trysin inhibitor up to 6.2% and tannin up to 3%. Since the cake is unpalatable as sole feed it is included up to 10% in the concentrate mixture of ruminants.

Dhupa (Vateria indica) Cake:
Dhupa seeds are available in large quantities from the forest tree ‘Vaterica indica’ which grow extensively in Karnataka state. After the extraction of oil, the available cake is not palatable as sole feed. It can be used as a component of concentrate mixture and can be fed to the growing cross-bred calves without any detrimental effect.

Bijada (Citrullus vulgaris) Cake:
The cake after oil extraction contains 20 % DCP with only 38 % TDN. Being poor in energy it can replace only partly the protein rich feeds in the concentrate mixtures of livestock and after increasing the percentage of energy rich feeds like maize, barley or brans in the rations.

Major Oil Seed Meals

This group includes soybean meal, groundnut meal/extraction, sunflower meal, coconut oil cake, cotton seed meal, rape seed meal or mustard oil meal and sesame (Til) oil meal. The availability and digestibility of amino acids, concentration of minerals and vitamins and the level of moisture, fiber and urease activity can all affect oil seed meal performance in a livestock ration.

Soybean (Glycine soja) Meal:
Soybean meal is one of the best protein supplements preferred for animal feeding. It contains about 50% crude protein and is a rich source of essential amino acids such as arginine, lysine, tryptothan and is fairly a good source of methionine and cystine. Raw soybean contains ‘soyin’ a toxic factor affecting protein utilization but can be destroyed by toasting operation in the solvent extraction process.

As defined by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) dehulled soybean meal is obtained by grinding the flakes that remains after removal of most of the oil from dehulled soybeans by a solvent extraction process. It must contain not more than 3.5% crude fiber and may contain calcium carbonate or an anti- caking agent not to exceed 0.5%. The meal suitable for poultry feed should have urease activity of 0.05 to 0.2 %. On an average the extraction contains a minimum protein of 48 %, fat 0.5 % and maximum fiber of 6.0 %. The color of the meal varies from light tan to light brown, homogeneous in texture and free flowing without any coarse particles or excessive fines.
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Cake: Sunflower is widely grown all over India with the sole purpose to increase oil production. Substantial quantity of sunflower extractions is now available for feeding livestock. Its CP content depends upon the removal of hull before processing. The meal contains about 28% protein and 22 to 25% fiber based on the nature of processing. It has been observed that its protein is quite deficient in lysine. Lysine supplementation with this cake gives better performance in growing calves. It is recommended up to 10 % level to avoid palatability problem.

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Cake/Extraction: These extractions have been well accepted for livestock and poultry feeding and its standard profile is used for comparing other vegetable protein sources. The decorticated form is generally preferred over the corticated form with the extractions being widely used now a days. The DCP and TDN values of the cake are 45 % and 75 %, respectively. It is deficient in methionine, cysteine, histidine and arginine and therefore need to be balanced with a good animal protein source such as fish meal while including in the poultry rations. The cake is more prone for the growth of micotoxins due to poor post- arvest-technology. Ammonia treatment has been found to be effective to detoxify the aflatoxins.

Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Meal: It is a sun-dried material of copra after oil extraction and produced mostly in southern states of India. The residual oil content of the meal is about 8 % which however varies with the type of extraction. Solvent extracted meal usually contains only 2 % residual oil. The oil from this meal has greater proportion of short chain saturated fatty acids which are highly digestible in poultry and swine. Higher content of saturated fatty acids in the meal produces hard fat in the carcasses of poultry and pigs. Its protein content ranges from 19 to 23 % and is deficient in lysine, methionine, threonine and histidine but is high in arginine. Lysine supplementation is necessary with this meal to have a balanced ratio with arginine. The problem with this ingredient is mold contamination which grows on it under high moisture conditions and warm environment. Even the unsaturated fatty acids get oxidized to give it odd flavour and its palatability is adversely affected. It is recommended at 5 % level. In swine, it is recommended up to the extent of 10 %. In ruminant rations the recommend level of the meal is 25 %.

Cottonseed (Gossypium arboretum) Cake: Cotton seed and its residue remaining after removal of oil by expeller or solvent extraction process have been traditionally used in feeds for ruminants such as cattle and often one of the best sources of vegetable protein. The meal has the low nutritive value because of its high fiber content and hence used up to a level of 5 – 10% in the concentrate mixtures of dairy cattle. De- corticated cotton seed meal, particularly the pre-pressed toasted variety with less than 0.04% free gossypol and 1.5% fat could be used up to 30% in broiler and swine feeds and up to 10 % in layer feeds without any harmful effect. After solvent extraction of cottonseed for oil, the residual cake is used for livestock feeding. This meal is of low nutritive value because of its high fiber content and can only be used up to a level of 5-10 % in the concentrate mixture. The CP content of the meal is about 40 %.
Mustard/Rapeseed (Brassica oleracea / juncea ) Cake: Mustard is grown extensively in the northern belt of India and is the second major oilseed source next to groundnut. Mustard seed-cake has a limitation to its palatability because of the presence of sinapine. It also contains a toxic factor namely ‘glucosinolate’ or ‘thiocyanate’ which affects thyroid function. Since the feeding of this oilcake affects thyroid function and in turn oxidative phosphorylation, there were reports of adverse effects on growth rate in calves and milk production in dairy cows.Oxalic acid content in this cake is only 0.15 %. Though this cake contains 35 % CP, the presence of incriminating factors limits its inclusion in the diets of all species to 10 %. Formaldehyde treatment of the cake can result in better performance. Certain low glucosinolate varieties of mustard/rape seed have been developed which can be fed more safely with better performance. The improved variety developed in Canada is named as ‘canola’ which is becoming more popular in north-India in place of traditional mustard varietives.

Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Cake: The hull portion of sesame (til) seed is around 22 % which can be separated to a certain extent by decorticating machines. The process of dehuling is practiced to reduce its fiber content and thus to increase its palatability and digestibility.
The oil content is 50 % from the seeds and after its extraction, the cake is commonly fed to livestock and poultry as protein source. It contains about 40 % CP and 5 % fat while the solvent extracted meal contains 45 % protein and 3 % fat. It is relished by the animals because of its high palatability. Nutritionally, its protein is rich in methionine, cystine and tryptophan but low in lysine and threonine. Normally, the oil source is high in unsaturated fatty acids, producing soft butter fat if fed in excess. Sesame seeds contain oxalic acid to the extent of 35 mg per 100 g and phytic acid at 5 %. Dark color varieties contain more of these ant-nutritional factors than the red colored varieties. Both of these affect the absorption rates of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and iron. Presence of oxalates can also cause kidney calculi during its excretion.Microbial phytase or wheat phytase can be given as a feed additive to hydrolyse phytic acid. Oxalic acid effect is overcome by giving extra quantity of mineral supplement.

Posted Date: 9/14/2012 1:02:07 AM | Location : United States

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