Agro industrial-chemical composition and nutritive values, Biology

Chemical Composition and Nutritive Values

The nutritional quality of an oil meal protein will be affected by the processing conditions to which it is been exposed. Three major factors that affect the nutritional quality are the amino acid composition, amino acid availability and the presence of anti-nutritional factors.

Feedstuff

Total available

Ingredient

Total by- product available

Extraction rate (%)

Nature of by-product

Sal seed

5504

4806

87.5

Extraction

Mahua seed

2176

1414

65.0

Cake

Neem seed

418

334

80.0

Cake

Rubber seed

336

117

35.0

Cake

Karanj

111

81

73.0

Cake

Kusum

105

70

67.0

Cake

Khankan,Undi,Nahar,

102

59

41.0

Cake

 

 

The nature of a protein in a particular oil seed is relatively constant but that the cake or meal derived from it may vary depending upon the method of processing employed for the removal of the oil. Extremes of temperatures and pressures of the expeller processing may result in lowering of digestibility and the denaturation of proteins with a consequent lowering of nutritive value.Solvent extraction does not involve pressing, temperatures are comparatively low and protein value of meals is almost same as that of the original seed. The average chemical composition of 8 important oil seed extractions/ meals is presented

 

Source

Protein

Ether extract

Fiber

N-free extract

Ash

Groundnut

40.8

9.0

5.8

38.2

6.2

Coconut(exp)

20.9

5.8

10.5

46.2

6.5

Rapeseed (exp)

35.2

7.0

15.5

29.5

6.8

Rapeseed (sol)

40.5

1.1

9.3

33.9

7.2

Safflower (sol)

19.8

0.3

40.1

28.5

4.5

Sesame (exp)

38.7

10.8

6.4

26.9

9.7

Sesame (sol)

45.1

0.7

5.2

32.0

13.2

Sunflower(exp)

41.0

7.6

13.0

24.6

6.8

 

 

Oil meals contribute to more than half of the total protein in the diet of dairy animals. The increased demand for protein is likely to lead to increased protein scarcity and cost in feeding of dairy animals. The per cent CP and ME values of 13 important oil seeds meals commonly available in the country are presented

 

Oil seed meal

Crude protein(%)

ME (Mcal/Kg)

 

Soybean meal

 

46

 

2.88

Rape seed meal

38

2.52

Sunflower meal

30

2.34

Coconut meal

28

2.52

Niger cake

33

2.70

Sesame/Gingelly cake

35

2.88

Groundnut meal

48

2.52

Cotton seed meal

36

2.50

Mahua seed cake

19

1.44

Saffolower

22

1.44

Salseed meal

9

1.98

Linseed meal

30

2.16

Karanja cake

32

2.60

 

 

The soybean meal, groundnut meal, rape seed meal, sesame oil meal and cotton seed meal can be grouped under high protein sources (35 to 45% CP) , while sunflower meal, coconut meal, niger seed meal, linseed meal, safflower meal etc. are medium protein sources ( 25 to 35% CP). Most of the oil meals stand next only to cereals in providing the metobolizable energy to the livestock.
Perusal of available research data reveal that wide variation exists among the various
unconventional feedstuffs with respect to their DCP and TDN values which reflecting further on their level of feeding in different livestock species which is further influenced by the toxic factor (s) present in the each of the feedstuffs

 

                                                  

 Feedstuff

D C P

T D N

   Level of Feeding                     Toxic Factor(s)

Ambadi cake

18.7

63.8

20% (calves)

nil

Castor bean meal

8.8

57.9

10% (sheep)

Ricin (0.22%)

Karanj cake

25.5

62.0

15% (calves and

Karanjine (10 to 15

 

 

 

lactating cows)

mg per 100g)

Kusum cake

14.73

79.62

35% ( calves)17%

HCN2.4 mg for

 

 

 

(broilers)

100g

Mango seed kernels

6.1

70.0

10% (milch cattle)

Tannins 5 to 6 %

Mahuva seed cake

9.3

49.8

20% (calves)

Mowrin (19%)

Niger seed cake

32.7

49.4

57% (calves)

Nil

Rubber seed cake

18.6

66.0

25 to 30% (calves and

HCN (9mg for 100

 

 

 

milch cattle)

g)

Sal seed meal

1

57.8

10% (milch cattle)

Tannic acid

 

 

 

 

(8 to 10%)

 

Posted Date: 9/14/2012 1:36:23 AM | Location : United States







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