Cereal and Gram By-Products
Agro-processing is now regarded as the sun rise sector in view of its large potential in maintaining the nutritional quality of processed feed resources. This includes a set of techno-economic activities carried out for conservation and handling of agro- industrial produce and to make them usable as food/ feed.
Rice Bran: The proximate composition of the rice bran varies widely and is in the range of 8.4-14.7 % moisture, 9.8-15.4 % crude protein, 5.7-20.9 % crude fiber, 7.7-22.4 % crude fat and 7.1-20.6 % total ash with cellulose content of 5.0-12.3%.The keeping quality of raw rice bran is severally affected due to rancidity with the presence of free fatty acids (FFA) which leads to rancidity on long storage. The CFTRI , Mysore has innovated a simple, easy and low cost chemical process to stabilize rice bran by lowering its pH to 4 by mixing thoroughly concentrated commercial grade HCl of 28 to 30 % strength with the fresh rice bran. Within minutes the rice bran gets stabilized for effective storage for 2 to 3 months without increase in FFA. The chemically stabilized bran can be fed without any adverse effect on the health status and performance of livestock.
The de-oiled rice bran manufactured by using good rice polish contain 16%CP, less than 5 % sand /silica and less than 10% crude fiber. Quality rice bran extractions are used up to 15 % in poultry feeds and up to 25 % in cattle feeds.
Rice (Oryza sativa) Husk: Rice husk comprises about 20-25% of paddy and constitutes the largest by-product of rice milling industry. It contains 2.9-3.6% protein,0.8-1.2% ether extract, 13-42% crude fiber and 25-29% nitrogen-free-extract. Rice husk as such is not very palatable and cannot be categorized as feed ingredient. It is used as adulterant and is mixed with the rice polishing /bran and sold as rice bran. Studies conducted at IVRI with alkali treatment improved its nutritive value without much commercial viability.
Wheat (Hoideum vulgare) Bran: Wheat is a major cereal crop grown in north-India. The country produced about 74.9 Mt of wheat by the year 2007 yielding about 85% of flour, 3% embryo and 12 % bran. The bran is a moderate source of protein ranging from 13 - 16% and hence considered as a choicest cheap energy source and bulky material in the rations of both ruminants and non-ruminants.
Maize (Zea mays) Husk: Maize husk is a by-product obtained as the outer coating of maize kernel after separation from the degermed maize in the wet milling manufacture of maize starch. It is a low-density material with a bulk density of 0.20 Kg/ cubic dm.T he husk co nta ined 8. 84 % CP, 68. 28 % NDF, 24 .3 9 % ADF, 4 3. 89 % hemicelluloses, 16.95 % cellulose and 3.58 % lignin on DM basis. The gross energy of maize husk is around 3.66 Mcal / kg DM.
Warai (Panicum miliaceum) Bran: Warai bran is quite wholesome just like wheat bran and rice bran and is available commercially in quantity of about 20,000 tonnes in India. Its utility as a feed ingredient is well documented and is being commonly fed to livestock. Its nutritive value depicts 4.5 % DCP and 57.4 % TDN. It is recommended up to a level of 25 % in concentrate mixture.
Gram Husks: Traditionally rural farmers in India feed their livestock on gram husks along with available cereal straws and home based by-products. India produced about 11.5 Mt of pulses by the year 2002-03 important being Urad (Phaseolus mungo), Moong (Vigna radiata), Masoor (Lens asculenta). Arhar (Cajanus indicus), Bengal gram(Cicer arietinum), Red gram (Cajanus cajan) with substantial quantities of husks made available through about 15,000 dhal mills spread over the country.
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Husks: Dehulled husks of groundnuts are the by-product of groundnut oil processing industry. It is a rich source of fiber and sand/ silica and available in plenty in groundnut growing states. Currently these husks are used as bedding material in poultry houses or used as manure. Attempts have been made to delignify the lingo-cellulosic fiber and to include in the ruminant rations followed by alkali treatment.