Absorption costing, marginal costing and break even analysis, Financial Accounting

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  • Absorption costing is a cost accounting method that tries to charge all direct costs and all production costs of an organization to specific units of production. Managerial decisions cannot be taken with the help of absorption costing.

  • Marginal costing, also known as variable costing, takes into accounts only variable costs as product cost. By showing the variable cost and contribution for each product, marginal cost helps the management in taking appropriate decisions.

  • Marginal cost is the cost incurred on producing an additional unit. Contribution is nothing but the difference between the sales value and the marginal or variable cost of the product. This contribution covers the fixed cost and generates profit.

  • The profitability of the operation of a business can be known with the help of profit/volume ratio. It establishes the relationship between contribution and sales.

  • A break even point is a point at which a firm earns no profit and does not bear any loss. It is a point at which the total sales are equal to total costs. In other words, contribution is sufficient to cover only fixed cost.

  • CVP Analysis is useful for taking decisions like fixation of selling price, effect of change in price, alternative methods of production, alternative course of action etc.

  • The break even chart is primarily drawn to understand the relationship between the costs/sales and profit at various levels of activity. The main feature of the break even chart is that it shows the break even point and the profits and loss at different levels of activities. The profit-volume chart describes the profit and loss of business at different levels of sales. In other words, it is the representation of the facts in the break even chart.


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