smog - london smog and photochemical smog, Biology

The word 'smog' consists of two words 'smoke' and 'fog'. This name was given because Fog in the atmosphere Condense on the carbon particles of smoke to form smog. There are two types of smog.

London smog

         The smog formed sulphur oxides (SOx) particulates (soot, ammonium sulphate) and humidity is known as London smog. It is formed by following reactions.

                                 2SO2 + O2  2167_hydrocarbon.png   2SO3

                                                OR

                                 SO3 + H2O  2167_hydrocarbon.png  H2SO4        

In the atmosphere SO2 is oxidized into SO3 by many chemicals (NO, soot particle. SO3 combines with water and forms sulphuric acid droplets. These droplets condense on the carbon particles of soot. It is formed in the early morning hours of winter months. After sunrise it increases due to oxidation of SO2 to SO3 followed by dissolution in moisture.

It causes bronchial irritation, acid rain poor visibility.

los angles smog  (photo chemical smog)

It is oxidizing smog formed by action of sunlight on hydrocarbons and the nitrogen oxides. Hydrocarbons + NOx + sunlight  photochemical smog.

Photochemical smog is mixture of substances such as O3, PAN, NOx, aldehyde, ketone etc. it is formed by following reactions.

                                                                       In I.C. engines

                                             N2 (g) + O3 (g)    2167_hydrocarbon.png    2NO (g)

                                                                      Or furnaces                 

                              2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2167_hydrocarbon.png  2NO2 (g)

                                                    U.V light                      

                                    NO2 (g)    2167_hydrocarbon.png      NO (g) + (O)

                                             O2 (g) + (O)   2167_hydrocarbon.png   O3

                        Hydro carbons + O3 + O2 + O + NO + NO2     

Oxidized hydrocarbons (peroxides, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), formaldehyde, aldehyde, acrolin etc.) these oxidized hydrocarbons and ozone in presence of humidity causes photo chemical smog. The photochemical smog dissipates at night. It causes irritation to eyes, nose and lungs, and may also damage the plants.

Posted Date: 7/12/2012 2:33:04 AM | Location : United States







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