Basic description of a computer system, Basic Computer Science

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The main components of a computer system at a basic level
Computer System
We call computer system to the whole configuration of a computer, as well as the peripheral units and the system programming which make it a helpful and functional machine for a resolute task.
Central Processor
This part is also identified as central processing unit or CPU. Its functions have in reading and writing the contents of the memory cells, to forward data among memory cells and special registers, and decode and execute the instructions of a program. The processor has a sequence of memory cells which are used very frequently and thus, are part of the CPU. These cells are identified with the name of registers. A processor may have one or two dozen of these register.
Central Memory
It is a group of cells, at the present being fabricated with semi-conductors, used for common processes, such as the execution of programs and the storage of information for the operations.
The common name of these memories is Random Access Memory or RAM. The most important disadvantage of this type of memory is that the integrated circuits lose the data they have stored when the electricity flow is interrupted. This was the cause for the creation of memories whose information is not lost when the system is turned off. These memories get the name of Read Only Memory or ROM.
Input and Output Units
In order for a computer to be valuable to us it is necessary that the processor communicates by means of the exterior through interfaces which agree to the input and output of information from the processor and the memory. All the way through the use of these communications it is possible to set up information to be processed and to afterward visualize the processed data.
Auxiliary Memory Units
Because the central memory of a computer is costly and considering today''s applications it is also very restricted. Thus, the requirement to create practical and economical information storage systems occurs. Besides, the central memory misplaces its content when the machine is turned off, therefore making it not convenient for the permanent storage of data.

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