Which of the following is a stage in the change process

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Reference no: EM131115127

1. A ________ is an example of a first-line manager.

a. shift manager
b. division manager
c. store manager
d. regional manager

2. Establishing strategies for achieving organizational goals is a part of the ________ function.
a. coordinating
b. organizing
c. leading
d. planning

3. Katz proposed that managers need ________ skills.
a. human, empirical, and mechanical
b. technical, human, and conceptual
c. technical, human, and financial
d. technical, interpersonal, and legal

4. Which of the following changes has resulted in the shifting of organizational boundaries?
a. digitization
b. increased competitiveness
c. increased emphasis on organizational ethics
d. changing security threats

Managerial Basic Training (Scenario)

Imagine that your marketing company has just merged with a manufacturing organization. You have been asked to help provide some "basic" managerial training to the engineers in the research and development unit of the new company. To ensure you are covering the important issues, your boss has asked to see an overview of materials that you will be providing the engineers.

5. The engineers have to be informed that, ________ are the people who direct the activities of others in an organization.
a. line workers
b. directors
c. subordinates
d. managers

6. Many of the engineers in the group are unclear about what managers actually do. Your training materials should explain that a manager's job focuses on ________.
a. personal achievement
b. helping others accomplish their work goals
c. supervising groups rather than individual employees
d. performing clerical duties

The Customer Meeting (Scenario)
Kelly, a production supervisor, is responsible for 10 employees who assemble components into a finished product that is sold to distributors. Kelly reports to Ben, a production manager, who in turn reports to Dan, a general manager, who reports to McKenna, a vice president of operations. Recently, McKenna asked Dan to have a meeting with Kelly and Ben regarding some customer concerns in the production area. The focus of the meeting was to judge the validity of the customer concerns, and to develop a specific plan to address these concerns.

7. Kelly is a ________.
a. middle manager
b. top manager
c. nonmanagerial employee
d. first-line manager

The General Manager (Scenario)
Michael is the manager of a production facility. On a routine day, Michael meets with the employees who produce the organization's product. At another time, Michael meets with the production manager, Betty, and the human resource manager, Joyce, to discuss complaints filed by one of the employees in the production department. Michael also spends time on the Internet looking for new technologies that can be used in the production processes of his plant.

8. When Michael manages the employees who produce the product, he is utilizing his ________.
a. empirical skills
b. conceptual skills
c. technical skills
d. human skills

Managerial Skills (Scenario)

Adam, Brenda, Carl, and Dan are employees in the same organization. Adam is the shift manager, Brenda is the district manager, Carl is the regional manager and Dan is the project leader. Adam manages the employees who produce the organization's product. After his excellent work is noticed, he is promoted to division manager. Carl on the other hand, after a disciplinary proceeding, is assigned to the post of office manager. Ethan is the managing director of the same organization.

9. Which of the following is true for Adam before his promotion?
a. His technical skills are of the utmost priority.
b. He need not have any empirical skills
c. He need not possess any human skills.
d. His conceptual skills are of the utmost priority.

10. The symbolic view of management is based upon the belief that managers symbolize ________.
a. the take-charge executive who overcomes any obstacle to see that the organization achieves its goals
b. every aspect of an organization's performance, from the top level to the operational level
c. the fluctuating fortunes of the organization as they alternate between profits and losses
d. control and influence in developing plans and making decisions

11. ________ is/are called the iGeneration because they've grown up with technology that customizes everything to the individual.
a. Post-Millenials
b. The Silent Generation
c. Gen Y-ers
d. Baby Boomers

12. Which of the following environments is characterized by the highest level of environmental uncertainty?
a. a dynamic and simple environment
b. a stable and complex environment
c. a dynamic and complex environment
d. a stable and simple environment

13. Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a strong organizational culture?
a. decreased organizational performance
b. inability to respond to changing conditions
c. high employee turnover
d. low loyalty towards the organization

14. The term ________ refers to repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the important values and goals of the organization.
a. corporate rituals
b. employee mentoring
c. business ethics
d. organizational culture

15. Which of the following is most likely to have a highly spiritual organizational culture?
a. a business that focuses strictly on outcomes
b. a business that emphasizes centralized control
c. a company with high tolerance of employee expression
d. a highly aggressive, competitive business

16. Jeff is an employee with the accounting department at a major shipping service provider in Texas. Soon after he joined following his graduation, his company developed corporate programs to help improve self-confidence and qualifications of diverse employees so they could "fit in." During which period of time did Jeff start working for his employers?
a. new millennium
b. early 1980s
c. late 1980s to late 1990s
d. 1960s to 1970s

17. Differences arising from which of the following factors becomes more important to people as they get to know each other?
a. gender
b. race
c. personality
d. ethnicity

18. Which of the following perceptions do employers typically have of older employees?
a. uncommitted to doing quality work
b. lack of sound judgment
c. weak work ethic
d. resistant to new technology

19. What type of discrimination usually involves jokes or negative stereotypes being perpetrated about fellow employees?
a. exclusion
b. mockery and insults
c. intimidation
d. discriminatory policies

20. Which of the following examples would be considered appropriate stereotyping?
a. assuming women to be particularly bad drivers
b. asking someone from accounting to help with a budgeting problem
c. assuming red-haired people have rather nasty tempers
d. bracketing working mothers as not being committed fully to their jobs

21. The aspect that differentiates social responsibility from other similar concepts is that it adds a(n) ________.
a. legal imperative
b. technical imperative
c. political imperative
d. ethical imperative

22. Which of the following arguments on social responsibility states that pursuing social goals hurts a business's economic productivity?
a. lack of skills
b. costs
c. dilution of purpose
d. image

23. A ________ is a formal statement of an organization's primary values and the ethical rules it expects its employees to follow.
a. code of ethics
b. vision statement
c. mission statement
d. code of purpose

24. The primary debate about ethics training programs is whether ________.
a. ethics can be taught
b. the programs give unethical individuals more ammunition
c. ethics causes misconduct
d. the programs cover misconduct outside the workplace

25. The ________ Act offers some legal protection to whistle-blowers. It has a provision wherein any manager who retaliates against an employee for reporting violations faces a stiff penalty of a 10-year jail sentence.
a. Landrum-Griffin
b. Taft-Hartley
c. Glass-Steagall
d. Sarbanes-Oxley

Group 2

1. To determine the ________, a manager must determine what is relevant or important to resolving a problem.
a. weight of the decision criteria
b. bounded rationality of a decision
c. escalation of commitment
d. decision criteria

2. Max is planning on going away to college next year and is currently trying to figure out which colleges he should apply to. He would like to major in English Literature at an accredited liberal arts college, but is also looking for a university that offers financial aid. In terms of the decision-making process, these represent Max's ________.
a. heuristics
b. alternatives
c. decision criteria
d. problems

3. Which of the following is important in effectively implementing the chosen alternative in the decision-making process?
a. ignoring criticism concerning your chosen alternative
b. evaluating each alternative by using the established criteria
c. allowing those impacted by the outcome to participate in the process
d. being creative while implementing the alternatives

4. The final step in the decision-making process is to ________.
a. evaluate the outcome of the decision
b. implement the chosen alternative
c. analyze the process of allocating weights to the decision criteria
d. determine the criteria for the next decision

5. It is assumed that a rational decision maker ________.
a. is unaware of all the possible alternatives and consequences
b. faces unclear and ambiguous problems
c. is limited by his or her ability to process information
d. is fully objective and logical

6. Which of the following is NOT a valid assumption about rationality?
a. The problem is clear and unambiguous.
b. A single, well-defined goal is to be achieved.
c. The decision maker accepts a solution that is good enough.
d. The decision maker is logical in his approach.

7. Escalation of commitment refers to ________.
a. the strengthening of commitment to a particular course of action due to greater motivation by others
b. commitment to a faulty decision due to an unwillingness to go against the opinion of the majority
c. an increased commitment to a previous decision despite evidence that it may have been wrong
d. greater commitment to a decision because of ones belief that it is "the right thing to do"

Is the Picture Clear? (Scenario)
Sharon was the regional manager of a large cable television company. She faced many problems and decisions daily, such as how to price each market, whom to hire, what kind of technology to purchase, and how to handle the increasing customer complaints. She needed some help sorting these issues out.

8. When a customer calls and requests a refund for a partial month's usage of the cable service, the fact that such situations are routine and most likely have a standard response would make the response a(n) ________ decision.
a. nonprogrammed
b. unstructured
c. programmed
d. speculative

Managing Your Career (Scenario)
Michelle has a new job and is learning to perform the tasks assigned to her. Different situations demand different decision-making processes.

9. Michelle eventually finds a problem that has no cut-and-dry solution. The problem is unique and is unlikely to occur again. This problem is ________ in nature.
a. structured
b. nonprogrammed
c. scheduled
d. programmed

10. The two metaphors commonly used to describe the two views of the change process are ________.
a. marine water and freshwater
b. muckwater and mudwater
c. running water and troubled water
d. calm waters and white-water rapids

11. According to Kurt Lewin, which of the following is a stage in the change process?
a. unfreezing
b. processing
c. restraining
d. driving

12. Which of the following techniques for reducing resistance to change includes employee counseling, therapy, new skills training, or a short paid leave of absence?
a. coercion
b. manipulation and co-optation
c. negotiation
d. facilitation and support

13. ________ is the process of taking a creative idea and turning it into a useful product or work method.
a. Inspiration
b. Innovation
c. Creativity
d. Ingenuity

14. ________ actively and enthusiastically support new ideas, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that innovations are implemented.
a. Idea champions
b. Idea generators
c. Idea developers
d. Idea screeners

The Government Job (Scenario)
Colin was getting accustomed to his surroundings in a state government job. His efforts at getting people to accept change had met with little resistance due to his and the new director's efforts as well as the hard work of his subordinates. But now the hard part really started-actually managing the change. What techniques could he and his agency's new director employ to most effectively implement changes that would result in increased productivity in his department? He considered changing three aspects of his agency: the structure, the technology, and the people.

15. If the new agency director decided to remove layers in the agency and increase the span of managerial control, this would be considered changing the ________.
a. degree of centralization
b. structural design
c. structural components
d. selection process

16. Florance is a chain of flower shops in the Chicago area. The company recently acquired Knickknacks, which owns three gift shops. Which of the following is most similar to this acquisition?
a. Construction firm Donaldson acquired Fabrica Textiles as it seemed like a good investment.
b. Toy World acquired Unicorn Children's Books and now retails both toys and books from co-branded outlets.
c. Dallas Shoes buys out RunTime Shoes and expands its distribution channels through RunTime outlets.
d. Faced with mounting raw material costs, I&A Products took over its supplier, BR Corporation.

17. In the BCG matrix, a ________ enjoys a high anticipated growth rate and a high market share.
a. star
b. question mark
c. cash cow
d. dog

18. Which of the following is a competitive force under the five forces model?
a. predictable changes in the market
b. vertical integration
c. threat of substitutes
d. past rivalry with competitors

19. Functional-level strategy directly supports the ________.
a. concentration strategy
b. competitive strategy
c. growth strategy
d. corporate strategy

20. Who targets a narrow market segment with customized products?
a. a differentiator
b. a focuser
c. a first mover
d. an integrator

21. ________ refers to the process of monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance.
a. Organizing
b. Planning
c. Leading
d. Controlling

22. The control process assumes that ________.
a. employees are under-qualified and require training
b. employee monitoring costs are part and parcel of doing business
c. performance standards are already in place
d. employees require clear directions from management

23. The comparing step in the control process determines ________.
a. the variation between actual performance and the standard
b. a company's relative position in the industry in terms of performance variances
c. the ideal standard to be used in measuring organizational performance
d. a company's relative position in the industry in terms of the standards used

24. Which of the following refers to the overall output of goods or services produced divided by the inputs needed to generate that output?
a. Demand function
b. Effectiveness
c. Productivity
d. Yield

25. In order to increase the ratio of outputs to inputs, a manager would have to ________.
a. decrease the selling price
b. increase the quality of inputs
c. hire additional employees
d. increase productivity

Group 3

1. Departmentalization based on ________ groups jobs on the basis of territory or physical location.
a. product
b. geography
c. process
d. customer

2. All other things being equal, the wider or larger the span, the more ________ an organization is.
a. mechanistic
b. rigid
c. Ambitious
d. efficient

3. Large organizations tend to have more ________ than smaller organizations.
a. rules and regulations
b. centralization
c. specialization
d. all of the above

4. Low vertical differentiation, low horizontal differentiation, and low formalization are characteristics of an organization that carries out ________.
a. unit production
b. mass production
c. flow production
d. process production

5. High vertical differentiation, low horizontal differentiation, and low formalization are characteristics of an organization that indulges in ________.
a. process production
b. unit production
c. serial production
d. mass production

6. What are the different structures that traditional organizations can have?
a. functional, strategic, and business unit structures
b. simple, functional, and divisional structures
c. simple, functional, and corporate structures
d. simple, functional, and business unit structures

General Hospital (Scenario)
Michelle is a registered nurse in charge of a new unit at her hospital. She would like to have a more laidback approach in dealing with her new staff, but the hospital demands that there be strict hierarchical levels and that all decisions must be signed off by Michelle. Sometimes the constant filling out of forms, and so forth really annoys Michelle. She also feels that the numerous levels of hierarchy are unnecessary and place barriers between herself and her staff. She isn't sure why things have to be so "organized" and is thinking about speaking with her boss about having more flexibility and fewer rules.

7. Michelle has noticed that everyone is very concerned about the line of authority within the hospital. This implies that the employees at the hospital are worried about the ________.
a. span of control
b. decentralization of control
c. departmentalization
d. chain of command

8. The fact that Michelle's signature is required on all documents and her word is the last word on all decisions relating to her unit, suggests that ________.
a. the hospital has an organic structure
b. the hospital has a centralized structure
c. the hospital has a decentralized structure
d. the hospital has a simple structure

Leather and Lacey (Scenario)
Lacey has been hired as a consultant for Jefferson Consulting. Her first assignment is to work with one of Jefferson's newest clients, Custom Leather, Inc., a manufacturer of high-end leather furniture. Custom Leather was founded over a decade ago with the idea that great looking, comfortable leather furniture could be custom made and delivered to customers in 30 days. Traditionally, retailers stock leather sofas to satisfy the desire to receive new furniture fast-limiting the choice of colors and style for the consumer. In stark contrast, Custom Leather offers 13 different styles in over 70 different colors-from rich, deep browns to sleek, silver grays, to bright, ruby red-through a select group of retail outlets. Each piece is built to the customer's individual requirements and is shipped within 2-3 weeks. However, the emergence of a new manufacturing technology has enabled a few, traditionally massproduction competitors to offer greater customization, adversely affecting Custom Leather's competitive advantage. As a result, Custom Leather is considering sweeping changes to current work processes and organizational structure.

9. Custom Leather CEO, Standish, is considering doubling the size of his workforce in conjunction with expanding the number of retail outlets that carry Custom Leather products. Lacey tells him that he should expect the organization to become _________ as a result of this change.
a. less formalized
b. more mechanistic
c. more organic
d. more decentralized

10. Which of the following organizational designs has no rigid and predefined structure?
a. boundaryless organizations
b. simple structures
c. functional organizations
d. matrix structures

11. Which of the following is true regarding the benefits of collaborative work?
a. The participants have similar views and similar goals.
b. It increases communication among participants.
c. The logistics of coordination is easily achieved.
d. It minimizes interpersonal conflicts.

12. Which of the following will help in making communities of practice successful?
a. conducting face-to-face meetings, instead of online meetings
b. encouraging members to nurture competing goals
c. focusing on simple and routine issues, that can be easily tackled
d. having clear accountability and managerial oversight

13. Which among the following is the best way to convince employees to become remote workers?
a. by pointing to the pay "increase" employees would receive from money saved through telecommuting
b. by telling them that they are unlikely to miss the camaraderie and social exchanges of the workplace
c. by offering free car rental
d. by telling them that telecommuting eventually blurs the line between work and home

14. The practice of having two or more people split a full-time job is known as ________.
a. temping
b. job rotation
c. job sharing
d. moonlighting

Changing Times (Scenario)
In order to cope with the changing times, Cheryl's company is thinking of adopting some organizational changes.

15. The company wants to grow without incurring costs for a new office building, equipment, or parking lots. Which would be the best option for the company?
a. It can give its employees the option of telecommuting.
b. It can compress the workweek of its employees.
c. It can adopt the open innovation approach.
d. It can enter into a strategic partnership.

16. Which of the following acts prohibit discrimination on the basis of physical or mental disabilities?

a. Vocational Rehabilitation Act
b. Equal Pay Act
c. Occupational Safety and Health Act
d. Civil Rights Act, Title VII

17. Errors made by getting rid of candidates who would have performed successfully on the job are known as ________.
a. reception errors
b. reject errors
c. accept errors
d. admission errors

18. Which of the following is a technology-based training method?
a. videoconferencing/teleconferencing
b. experiential exercises
c. workbooks/manuals
d. classroom lectures

19. The ________ method utilizes feedback from supervisors, employees, and coworkers.
a. 360-degree appraisal
b. critical incident
c. management by objective
d. graphic rating scale

The New Sales Manager (Scenario)
Wade McKenzie is a new sales manager for The Potomac Group, a healthcare finance consulting firm, based in the mid-South. In addition to performing his regular duties he has also been asked to evaluate the performance of his subordinates and present a report to his superiors.

20. Six months into Wade's tenure as sales manager, he hosts his first regional sales meeting. During the course of the meeting, Wade meets individually with his employees and shows them a chart of their sales numbers for each month compared to their budgeted quota for the year to date. Additionally, Wade and each employee set mutually agreed-upon budget goals for the remaining six months of the fiscal year. Wade is utilizing the ________ method of performance appraisal.
b. multiperson comparison
c. MBO
d. critical incident

21. ________ occurs when a supervisor earns less than his or her subordinates.
a. Groupthink
b. Status incongruence
c. Role ambiguity
d. Job enrichment

22. Which of the following suggestions will help reduce the effect of social loafing in groups?
a. clearly identify individual responsibilities
b. form homogeneous groups to increase group cohesiveness
c. provide group rewards instead of individual rewards
d. increase the overall size of the group

23. ________ conflict relates to the content and goals of the work.
a. Network
b. Relationship
c. Task
d. Process

24. Conflicts can be resolved by withdrawing from them or suppressing them. This conflict management technique is known as ________.
a. compromising
b. accommodating
c. avoiding
d. forcing

25. A work group ________.
a. has no need or opportunity to engage in collective work that requires joint effort
b. encourages open-ended discussions and active problem-solving meetings
c. works intensely on a specific goal using their positive synergy
d. measures performance directly by assessing collective work outputs

Group 4

1. Which component of attitude is reflected in the sentence, "This is the best way to reach the place"?
a. emotive
b. affective
c. behavioral
d. cognitive

2. ________ is employees' general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.
a. Cognitive dissonance
b. Organizational commitment
c. Perceived organizational support
d. Job involvement

3. Which of the following is true according to the MBTI®?
a. Perceiving types are rigid and structured.
b. Introverted types are practical and prefer routine and order.
c. Feeling types use reason and logic to handle problems.
d. Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered.

4. People with high self-esteem ________.
a. are more susceptible to external influence
b. are more likely to take unpopular stands
c. are more likely to seek approval from others
d. are more prone to conform to the beliefs of those they respect

5. A person who can adapt and adjust behavior to external factors has ________.
a. high self-monitoring
b. low self-esteem
c. an internal locus of control
d. high risk-taking ability

6. Kevin is a whirlwind as a research and development supervisor. His colleagues are surprised that even though he makes decisions very quickly and always with less information than others, his decisions are as good as anybody else's. This information implies that Kevin has ________.
a. an external locus of control
b. low cognitive dissonance
c. high risk-taking ability
d. low Machiavellianism

7. People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs are said to have ________ personalities.
a. self-aware
b. resilient
c. proactive
d. agreeable

8. Emotional intelligence has been shown to be ________.
a. negatively related to job performance at all levels
b. positively related to job performance at all levels
c. negatively related to job performance in middle management only
d. positively related to job performance only in government agencies

9. Andrew is social, friendly, and understanding, and prefers activities that involve helping and developing others. Which of the following occupations is a potentially good match for him?
a. artist
b. accountant
c. news reporter
d. teacher

10. ________ behavior is voluntary or learned behavior.
a. Reactive
b. Reflexive
c. Dissonant
d. Operant

11. The influence of models depends on how well an individual remembers the model's behavior. This refers to the individual's ________.
a. reinforcement process
b. motor reproduction process
c. retention process
d. attentional process

12. In which of the following cases is communication used to control employee behavior?
a. Glenn lets Ann know that the deadline for her project has been postponed.
b. Chris gives Jason tips on how to improve his performance.
c. Sandy tells Mitch that she's happy with the progress he's making.
d. Jan informs Sara that she must follow the dress code at work.

13. ________ is the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver.
a. Encoding
b. Diagonal communication
c. Lateral communication
d. Filtering

14. If a company is concerned with achieving high member satisfaction for all the participants in a network, which of the following communication networks is best?
a. wheel network
b. chain network
c. all-channel network
d. horizontal network

15. An organization's grapevine works as ________.
a. a method for managers to communicate official policy
b. a filter and a feedback mechanism for managers
c. a method for management to control the dissemination of information
d. both a formal and an informal communication method

16. Because rumors that flow along the grapevine can never be eliminated entirely, managers can minimize the negative consequences of rumors by ________.
a. communicating openly and honestly with employees
b. encouraging an all-channel communication network
c. using filtering wherever possible
d. ignoring them completely

17. To maximize motivation among today's workforce, managers need to think in terms of ________.
a. job autonomy
b. flexibility
c. job security
d. compensation

18. Which of the following motivating factors or concepts is important to all workers, regardless of their national culture?
a. extrinsic factors like pay
b. need for achievement
c. physiological needs as the foundational need in the needs hierarchy
d. interesting work

19. In the job characteristics model, task significance refers to the degree to which a job ________.
a. provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in carrying out the work
b. requires a variety of activities and uses a number of different employee skills and talents
c. requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
d. has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people

20. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, a person's needs for self-respect, autonomy, achievement, status, recognition, and attention constitute his ________ needs.
a. social
b. esteem
c. safety
d. physical

21. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, a person's needs for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship constitute his ________ needs.
a. social
b. esteem
c. safety
d. physical

22. Susan Bones is the sales manager at the Ohio office of Alpha Inc. She has a reputation of being fair, helpful, and understanding. Laura, one of her subordinates, recalled how Susan had even helped her overcome a personal crisis. Which of the following dimensions of leadership is Susan displaying here?
a. consideration
b. initiating structure
c. employee orientation
d. task orientation

23. Fiedler's term ________ refers to the degree of influence a leader has over power-based activities.
a. leader-member relations
b. position power
c. responsibility
d. task structure

24. According to the path-goal theory, a leader who lets subordinates know what's expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks is termed ________.
a. directive
b. achievement oriented
c. participative
d. supportive

25. A leader, such as Bill Gates of Microsoft, who can inspire followers above their own selfinterests and can have a profound effect on their performance, is known as a(n) ________.
a. transactional leader
b. directive leader
c. informational leader
d. transformational leader

Reference no: EM131115127

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