Which is an argument for a centralized probation authority

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Question 1. Counting jails and prisons, approximately how many citizens are incarcerated?

A. a. 1 million

B. b. 2.3 million

C. c. 3 million

D. d. 4.3 million

Question 2. Which important scholar argued that criminals and their punishment are functional in society, help to define norms and expectations for conformity?

A. Emile Durkheim

B. Cesare Beccaria

C. Travis Hirshchi

D. Cesare Lombroso

Question 3. Political liberals and _______________ encouraged reform of the prison system during the Enlightenment Period.

A. Political conservatives

B. independents

C. religious groups

D. political liberals

Question 4. Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles?

A. Punishment should correspond in degree and kind to the offense.

B. An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth is legal punishment.

C. Punishment needs to be proportionate.

D. All of these

Question 5. The Penitentiary Act was based upon four core principles where prisoners were confined in solitary cells and labored silently in common rooms. They include

A. secure and sanitary conditions.

B. nonsystematic inspections.

C. fees for inmates.

D. a continued regimen.

Question 6. How was the existing system of justice altered during the Enlightenment?

A. People reconsidered the administration of law and redefined corrections.

B. During this period the classical school of criminology emerged, with its insistence on a rational link between the gravity of the crime and the severity of the punishment.

C. The social contract and utilitarianism emphasized limitations on the government and the need to erect a system of punishments so that people would be deterred from crime.

D. All of these

Question 7. The __________ was a penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates.

A. congregate system

B. assemble system

C. separate confinement system

D. segregated confinement system

Question 8 During the Progressive Reform Era, two main strategies were implemented. They included improving conditions in social environments and ______________.

A. feeding inmates better food.

B. ensuring prisoners were not in solitude.

C. reintegrating inmates into society.

D. rehabilitating individual offenders.

Question 9. The Military Commissions Act (MCA) __________ the ability of "unlawful enemy combatants" to file a writ of habeas corpus.

A. permits

B. fosters

C. enhances

D. eliminates

Question 10. Which court decision held the basic elements of procedural due process must be present when decisions are made concerning the disciplining of an inmate?

A. Wolff v. McDonnell

B. Holt v. Sarver

C. Estelle v. Gamble

D. Pugh v. Locke

Question 11. Which case allowed inmates to sue state officials for brutality, inadequate medical care and nutrition, theft of personal property and the denial of basic rights:

A. Cooper v. Pate

B. Terry v. Ohio

C. Carroll v US

D. Gregg v GA

Question 12. In Boumediene v. Bush, the Court ruled the detainees at Guantanamo Bay are entitled to:

A. a lawyer.

B. challenge the conditions of their confinement.

C. one hour of exercise a day.

D. file writs of habeas corpus.

Question 13. According to the Supreme Court, the term "totality of conditions" may be legally interpreted as:

A. cruel and unusual punishment.

B. unfair

C. unreasonable.

D. irrational.

Question 14. The right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment is found in which Amendment?

A. First

B. Fourth

C. Eighth

D. Fourteenth

Question 15. Experts usually cite _________ as reasons wrongful convictions occur.

A. plea-bargaining pressures

B. community pressure

C. eyewitness error

D. all of these
Question 16. Probationary sentences emphasize guidance and ______________ in the community.

A. employment

B. educational attainment

C. supervision

D. family connectivity

Question 17. In the Booker decision, the justices said that sentencing guidelines are:

A. mandatory.

B. discretionary.

C. ridiculous.

D. binding.

Question 18. Restorative justice sees crime as a violation against which of the following?

A. Victim and community

B. Offender and the state

C. Law and justice

D. Fairness and equity

Question 19. Which of the following is an argument for a centralized probation authority?

A. Decentralized programs are often unprofessional and lag behind the times

B. It is able to train staff for a variety of roles

C. It is able to implement broader program with greater equality in supervision and services

D. All of these.

Question 20. Which of the following was not an innovation initially developed by John Augustus?

A. Probation

B. Supervision conditions

C. Home detention

D. Presentence investigation

Question 21. Between 1200 and 1827, English law:

A. discriminated against the upper social classes.

B. strove for equality in all matters.

C. discriminated against monks, nuns, and priests.

D. discriminated in favor of the upper social classes.

Question 22. Recognizance was first used in court to recognize a formally recorded ___________to perform some act entered by a judge to permit an offender to live in the community.

A. indebtedness

B. obligation

C. appreciation

D. debt

Question 23. Judges may use a range of ________________ sanctions from those exerting a low level of control to those exerting a high level of control.

A. truth in sentencing

B. determinate

C. intermediate

D. mandatory

Question 24. The concept of community corrections is best understood as a goal. That goal clearly is to:

A. save money.

B. reduce reliance on prisons.

C. reduce crime.

D. both save money and reduce reliance on prisons.

Question 25. The new movement that seeks to establish correctional programs falling between standard probation and prison is called:

A. penal sanctions.

B. probation.

C. primary sanctions.

D. intermediate sanctions.

Question 26. A major criticism of probation, as traditionally practiced, is that:

A. it is too impersonal.

B. the probation officers don't really care about the client.

C. it is inadequate for a large number of offenders.

D. there aren't enough offenders to make it work.

Question 27. Probation granted under conditions of strict reporting to a probation officer with a limited caseload is known as:

A. intensive supervision program

B. presentence investigation

C. supervision intensive program

D. individual program supervision

Question 28. According to your text, jail suicides are primarily caused by:

A. the limited personal space provided in jail facilities.

B. the crisis nature of arrest and detention.

C. emotional instability, which is exacerbated by the jail experience.

D. both the crisis nature of arrest and detention and emotional instability.
Question 29. By far the most successful pretrial release program is:

A. unsecured bail.

B. percentage bail.

C. forfeit bail.

D. release on recognizance (ROR).
Question 30. __________ is a drug that inhibits drinking.

A. Methadone

B. Cocaine

C. Antabuse

D. Malabuse

Question 31. America's oldest prison was built in 1798. This prison was located in what city in New Jersey:

A. Dalton

B. Trenton

C. Wilmington

D. Wilbur

Question 32. The prison design most often used for female and juvenile inmates is:

A. Radial design

B. telephone pole design

C. campus style

D. courtyard style

Question 33. The __________ model was dominant in the 1960s and early 1970s.

A. retribution

B. incapacitation

C. rehabilitation

D. reintegration

Question 34. At present, the focus of corrections has shifted to:

A. crime control.

B. rehabilitation.

C. treatment.

D. restitution.
Question 35. Most prisons employ a __________ model.

A. rehabilitative

B. reintegration

C. retributive

D. custodial

Question 36. According to sociologists, the "big house" image of the American prison has:

A. ceased to show a limited understanding of the contemporary prison.

B. provided us with a deeper understanding of the modern prison.

C. spawned a great deal of humanitarian reform in the eyes of the public.

D. created interest in the operations of the modern prison among the general public.

Question 37. A majority of all state prisoners throughout the country are housed in __________ prisons.

A. maximum security

B. medium security

C. minimum security

D. super max
Question 38. With the correctional focus shifting to crime control, some believe offenders have had it too soft, resulting in:

A. the institution of strict regimes in prisons.

B. the removal of educational and recreational amenities from prisons.

C. an increase in the number of people in prison.

D. all of these.
Question 39. Responsibility of housing federal pretrial detainees belongs to:

A. the FBI.

B. the Secret Service.

C. the Marshal's Service.

D. none of these.
Question 40. Prisons designed to hold the "toughest of the tough" are called:

A. maximum security prisons.

B. solitary confinement.

C. custodial confinement.

D. super-max prisons.
Question 41. In prison, gangs are organized primarily to:

A. control an institution's drug trade.

B. control gambling and extortion within the institution.

C. control debt-collection rackets within the institution.

D. all of these.
Question 42. A set of rules of conduct that reflect the values and norms of the prison social system and help to define for inmates the characteristics associated with the model prisoner is known as the:

A. institutional code.

B. informal code.

C. prison code.

D. inmate code.

Question 43. The adaptive role within prison where inmates see the period in prison as a temporary break in their criminal careers is known as: When an inmate views his/her incarceration as a temporary break in their criminal career, their adaptive role is known as:

A. jailing.

B. gleaning.

C. hustling.

D. doing time.

Question 44. Because inmates are not allowed to carry any currency, the primary method of exchange in prison is:

A. narcotics.

B. cigarettes.

C. "bug juice."

D. sex.
Question 45. Correctional leaders have found the best way to weaken prison gangs is to:

A. negotiate between gang members.

B. place gang members in solitary confinement.

C. transfer gang members to another institution.

D. all of these.
Question 46. Which of the following is not a purpose of gangs in prison?

A. protection

B. extortion

C. religion

D. camaraderie
Question 47. Inmates who fall victim to sexual violence while incarcerated tend to be:

A. a gang leader

B. correction officer

C. elderly

D. not affiliated with a gang
Question 48. In prison terminology the "fish" is a(n):

A. career criminal.

B. newcomer.

C. gang member.

D. elderly inmate.

Question 49. A principal feature in prison society which reinforces the norms and roles of the social system and influences the nature of interpersonal relationships is known as:

A. cable TV.

B. programming.

C. the yard.

D. an underground economy.
Question 50. In 2003 the Prison Rape Elimination Act was created in order to:

A. gather national statistics on prison rape.

B. make prison rape illegal.

C. honor a rape victim.

D. support prisoner's rights.

Reference no: EM131191692

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