Reference no: EM131399891
Part A -
1. The minimalist view holds that ____________.
a. the differences between the genders are large b. the differences between the genders are due to biological factors c. the differences between the genders are small d. no gender-related differences exist e. both a and b
2. Exaggerations in gender-related differences tend to occur ____________.
a. in all cultures in very similar ways b. regardless of personal experience c. without forming stereotypes d. when people think of the genders in terms of opposites e. in all of the above situations
3. Functionalist psychologists conducted research that ____________.
a. showed women were intellectually equal to men b. showed maternal instinct did not exist c. confirmed the societal view that nonwhites were equal to Whites in intelligence d. confirmed the societal view that women and nonwhites were inferior in terms of intelligence
4. The era of "womanless" psychology existed when ____________.
a. women left research psychology to pursue the more prestigious and lucrative private practices in clinical psychology b. women were not included as participants in psychology research c. gender-related differences were not among the topics researched by psychologists d. both b and c e. All of the above.
5. "The world would be a better place if women were in charge" is a statement consistent with _____________ feminism.
a. liberal b. radical c. cultural d. stereotypical
6. In her 1968 paper, Naomi Weisstein argued that some factor had been omitted from psychology's conceptualization of women and gender. This factor was ____________.
a. individual differences b. the biological basis of behavior c. the context in which behavior occurs d. the epistemological orientation that some psychologists have taken
7. Ben Barres has a unique perspective on the treatment of women in science and contends that ____________.
a. women and men receive similar treatment for good work b. women have many advantages in science; men are the ones who are now discriminated against c. women are still discriminated against in science d. men and women work together with few problems; the perception of discrimination comes mostly from administrators, not scientists
8. Quantification refers to _____________.
a. the process of measurement in precise quantities b. the process of turning observations into numbers c. the process of changing qualitative research into observations d. All of the above.
9. In psychology research, dependent variables are _____________.
a. internal events rather than publicly observable responses b. measured by physiological responses rather than by voluntary behaviors c. observable responses or behavior d. not defined before the beginning of the study
10. When researchers use gender as a subject variable, _____________.
a. they perform experiments that require careful attention to control of other variables b. they use the social categories of male and female to contrast attitudes about men and women c. they usually compare a group of men or boys to another group of women or girls d. they must manipulate gender as their independent variable
11. When researchers use gender as a social category, ____________.
a. they can manipulate gender as an independent variable b. they usually compare a group of men or boys to another group of women or girls c. they must perform longitudinal research, which takes time, so this technique is not a very common approach to gender research d. gender is the dependent variable rather than the independent variable
12. Case studies focus on ____________.
a. collecting information on as many cases as necessary to obtain a representative sample b. studying one case intensively c. interviewing according to operational definitions d. reversing the order of questions for alternative participants to avoid bias in collecting information
13. The strong association between synchronized swimming and women has resulted in ____________.
a. stereotyping of the activity as feminine b. the exclusion of men from this activity c. an equal mix of men and women participating in this activity d. both a and b e. All of the above.
14. In the 19th century, men who had an education tended to get better employment compared to less well-educated men. The tendency toward education for men led to the _____________.
a. belief that education could benefit women, too b. acceptance of different standards for masculinity c. fear that men were becoming less masculine d. reorganization of social roles within marriage
15. Hegemonic masculinity _____________.
a. is identical to Sex Role Strain b. highlights the positive aspects of femininity as well as masculinity c. represents the one sanctioned version of masculinity to which all men should adhere d. can be seen in personal interactions between men and women but not in social or political interactions
16. The validation of the Mf scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory _____________.
a. included a representative sample of U.S. residents b. included mostly college students, yielding an unrepresentative sample c. included two levels of sampling, one with over 2,000 men and the second with over 1,000 women d. included no women
17. The history of psychology's measurement of masculinity and femininity ____________.
a. includes the development of many tests but less agreement over what constitutes masculinity and femininity b. has transformed the popular understanding of these concepts c. remains an active endeavor in psychology d. both b and c
18. In television advertising, what group is most often represented as authoritative sources?
a. groups with mixed ethnicity b. middle-aged White women c. White men d. African Americans in their 60s
19. The two main classes of gonadal hormones are ____________ and ____________.
a. estrogens; androgens b. pituitary; hypothalamic c. ovarian; progestrogenic d. androgenic; testosterogenic
20. The term sexual dimorphism refers to ____________.
a. the sexual changes that occur during puberty b. the psychological differences between men and women c. the two physically different versions of the sexes d. developmental changes that occur during the prenatal period
21. If the Müllerian system fails to develop then ____________.
a. the Wolffian system also fails to develop, producing an individual with Turner syndrome b. Müllerian-inhibiting substance is produced by the mother c. the individual will not develop according to the female pattern d. the individual will be intersex rather than male or female
22. The brains of males are larger than the brains of females ____________.
a. beginning at puberty and continuing until old age b. due to the action of prenatal estrogens c. and most of the difference is in the cerebral hemispheres d. but the difference is mostly due to the difference in body size
23. Psychological and social influences are LEAST likely to create gender differences ___________.
a. during prenatal development b. when parents reward gender-typed behavior c. when hormone levels are highest d. after gender roles are fixed
24. The role of hormones in sexual receptivity _____________.
a. is clear for some animals, such as rats, but not so clear for other animals, such as humans b. is clear for all mammals but not for reptiles, birds, or insects c. is not as strong as experience and expectation in any species d. has not been established for any species
25. Individuals with Turner syndrome _____________.
a. are genetically female b. are hermaphrodites c. have extra chromosomal material, resulting in an XXX pattern d. have missing chromosomal material
Part B -
1. According to Freud, two instincts furnish the energy for personality functioning. These instincts are ____________.
a. the id and the ego b. the subconscious and the unconscious c. the act of repression and the defense mechanism of denial d. sex and aggression
2. During the phallic stage, girls experience ____________.
a. traumatic events that are similar in severity to those boys experience b. traumatic events that are similar but more severe than boys experience c. less hostility for their same-sex parent and less competition for their other-sex parent's attention than boys d. traumatic events that differ from but are less severe than those experienced by boys
3. Karen Horney was _____________.
a. an early psychologist who followed Freud's psychoanalytic theory b. like Freud-a physician and psychoanalyst c. unlike Freud-a physician trained in the experimental procedures involved in psychophysiology d. one of Freud's lay analysts
4. Nancy Chodorow's psychoanalytic theory of development _____________.
a. is a minor revision of Freud's psychoanalytic theory b. emphasizes the latency and genital stages of development rather than the phallic stage c. emphasizes pre-Oedipal development d. replaced Freud's theory with a research-based approach to personality development
5. What do all of the psychodynamic theories of gender development have in common?
a. an emphasis on the importance of the unconscious in personality formation and functioning b. the view that the events of the Oedipus complex are the most important factors in gender development c. a bias against women and an acceptance of the inferiority of their personalities d. nothing-these theories have no underlying principles that make them comparable
6. Cognitive developmental theory and social learning theory differ in the ____________.
a. existence of stages in cognitive developmental but not in social learning theory b. emphasis on cognitive factors in cognitive developmental but not in social learning theory c. the similarity of cognitive developmental theory to psychoanalytic theory d. the solid theoretical basis for social learning theory but the lack of a theoretical basis for cognitive developmental theory
7. Which theory of gender development best fits the data?
a. social learning theory b. cognitive developmental theory c. gender schema theory d. None is a good fit with all of the evidence.
8. A child who has trouble with gender labeling ____________.
a. is typically older than 4 years b. cannot apply the words girl and boy correctly c. becomes inflexible in the use of gender words d. consistently reverses the labels for the genders
9. Trying to get children to make mistakes concerning the gender of a male doll by dressing the doll in feminine clothing and calling him "her" may lead children as old as ____________ into making mistakes.
a. 4 years old b. preschool age c. early elementary age d. teenagers
10. Despite the high level of gender stereotyping that typically occurs during adolescence, _____________ has been associated with an increase in gender flexibility.
a. the transition to junior high school b. the transition to high school c. negative reinforcement for gender atypical behaviors d. preparation for marriage
11. Studies that have examined the influence of prenatal testosterone exposure on the play preferences of girls and boys during childhood found that _____________.
a. both boys and girls were affected, but girls may be more strongly affected than boys b. boys' behavior was affected, making these boys more aggressive than other boys c. neither girls' nor boys' behavior was affected by prenatal testosterone exposure d. high estrogen levels-not high testosterone exposure- had an effect
12. What is most likely to be an influence for gender egalitarianism?
a. fathers b. mothers c. sisters d. male peers
13. The cultivation theory of media effects proposes that ____________.
a. the media cultivate a climate in which a variety of gender-related behaviors are tolerated b. in order to understand the influence of media, one must cultivate an attitude of tolerance c. the media cultivate beliefs and attitudes about the world that lead people to imagine that their lives should match these images d. the media may take any role that society cultivates for the media
14. Using the Stanford-Binet intelligence test, Terman found _____________.
a. no difference in intelligence between men's and women's test scores b. that the difference between men's and women's test scores was small but consistent, with men scoring higher than women c. that the difference between men's and women's test scores was large, with women outscoring men d. that the difference between men's and women's test scores was large, with men outscoring women
15. In the general population, mathematical ability is ____________.
a. equal for men and women b. not equal for men and women, and men have an advantage c. not equal for men and women, and women have an advantage d. of no practical use, so men's and women's ability is nothing more than a point for argument and debate
16. Which statement is true concerning the intelligence and mental abilities of women and men?
a. Women's and men's scores on IQ tests are equal. b. On the average, men are better than women at math. c. On the average, men are better than women at verbal tasks. d. Both b and c are true.
17. Overall, gender-related differences in spatial abilities _____________.
a. are complex, with advantages for men in some, women in others, and no reliable differences in others b. are complex, with varying degrees of advantage for men, but no tasks show advantages for women c. are complex, with an increasing age-related disadvantages for women in most spatial tasks d. are straightforward, with boys and men outperforming girls and women in all four types of spatial tasks
18. Rather than being related to gender, memory differences for various types of material seem related to _____________.
a. age b. gender stereotypes c. emotional associations to the material d. educational background
19. The role of evolution in gender-related differences in brain lateralization is ____________.
a. impossible to confirm or refute b. the most likely explanation for women's superior spatial ability c. the most likely explanation for men's superior spatial ability d. not related to other biological factors in natural selection
20. When men cry, they are usually ____________; when women cry, they _____________.
a. confused; are usually sad b. sad; may be sad or angry c. angry; are usually sad d. uncertain of their feelings; are also uncertain of their feelings
21. Research on nonhuman primates and their care for infants has shown that ____________.
a. males are not interested in infants and tend to abuse those infants that seek their company b. males are interested in those infants that they have fathered but not in other infants c. males within the social group may show reactions that vary from little interest to large involvement, but their reactions rarely include aggression d. females form nurturing relationships with all young, including their offspring and others
22. The concept of attachment applies to the ____________.
a. attraction of infants to their caregivers b. attraction that mothers feel to their infants c. mutual relationship between infants and their caregivers d. bond that forms between infant and mother in the few hours after the infant's birth
23. According to one view of human prehistory, men became more aggressive than women because _____________.
a. women were not part of the social group and thus did not need to be assertive b. women needed to defend their infants but did not need to attack c. women cared for children while men hunted and defended the family d. the more aggressive men were, the more successful at mating
24. When women get angry, they are more likely than men to _____________.
a. express rather than suppress their anger b. leave the situation that prompted their anger c. hit something, but not necessarily someone d. cry
25. In some circumstances women are less aggressive than men, and this reluctance to respond with aggression may be due to ____________.
a. a fear of retaliation and inadequate ways to defend themselves b. a more communal style of expressing aggression c. underlying biological restraints that apply to women but not to men d. their belief in the legal system's ability to deal with inappropriate aggression in society
Part C -
1. Cross-gender interactions in middle-school children ____________.
a. are often not voluntary and are often tinged with hostility b. usually occur in the context of neighborhood play activities, which the children seek and enjoy c. are encouraged by both parents and teachers as a way to ease children's discomfort with the other gender d. are similar to adolescents' dating patterns, with couples engaged in romantic and sexual activities
2. Maintaining friendships after marriage ____________.
a. is easier for men than women-men have more free time outside the home and can get together with their friends b. is easier for women than men-women tend to form networks of friends and to maintain these friendships c. is easy for both men and women-both continue their previous relationships d. is difficult for both men and women-both tend to abandon their previous relationships
3. The Companionship blueprint for marriage ____________.
a. emphasizes an equal mixture of passion, intimacy, and commitment b. describes women as the experts of love c. relies on compatibility and romance for continuing the relationship d. All of the above.
4. Evolutionary psychology predicts that ____________.
a. mate selection is based on mutual status concerns b. women are attracted to men who are good-looking and physically fit c. men value physical attractiveness because it signals reproductive fitness d. same-gender sexual activity contributes to genetic diversity
5. The blueprint in which partners select each other on the basis of romantic attraction and maintain a relationship in which the man has more power is the ____________ Blueprint.
a. Family Duty b. Companionship c. Independence d. Interdependence
6. What group of people is least satisfied with marriage?
a. European American women b. European American men c. African American women d. African American men
7. Prior to the 1990s, women tended to rationalize men's reluctance to do household work ____________.
a. but men did not, pushing to be more involved in taking care of their children b. but women became increasingly unhappy about this inequity c. and European American women continue to rationalize, but women from other ethnic groups have become increasingly unhappy d. and women continue to rationalize in order to keep their husbands happy
8. Self-selection of participants ____________.
a. occurs in most experimental studies, not only on sex but on other topics as well b. is not a problem for survey research but affects experiments c. occurs when participants rather than researchers decide who will participate in a study d. can be an advantage in some studies
9. Kinsey found that the most common type of childhood sexuality was ____________.
a. masturbation b. genital exploration with siblings c. molestation by adults d. molestation by older children
10. The sex survey conducted by Samuel and Cynthia Janus _____________.
a. replicated but did not add information to that from earlier surveys b. was conducted through sampling the readership of women's magazines c. obtained a more representative sample than earlier surveys d. concentrated on extensive interviews with college students and personnel
11. Masters and Johnson's research on the sexual response _____________.
a. confirmed the differences in orgasm between men and women b. failed to confirm Freud's contention that a difference exists between vaginal and clitoral orgasm c. confirmed Freud's contention that women have two different types of orgasm d. extended the knowledge of age-related differences in the experience of orgasm
12. When asked to recall their sexual experiences during childhood, about ____________ of adults recall an event with another child about the same age.
a. 25% b. half c. 80% d. 99%
13. Sexual abuse of children has ____________.
a. serious short-term effects but few serious long-term consequences b. few short-term effects but many serious long-term consequences c. both short-term and long-term effects that may be serious d. neither short-term nor long-term effects-the problem has been overemphasized
14. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 ____________.
a. mandated an equal dollar amount for men and women's athletic programs b. prohibited gender discrimination in educational programs in schools that receive federal funds c. controlled access to higher education through a series of quota admissions d. provided for more federal funding of scholarships and loans
15. Which of the following ways can high school boys gain prestige and status that is not effective for high school girls?
a. being considered intelligent b. being a good athlete c. getting good grades d. All of the above are ways that both girls and boys can gain prestige in high school.
16. The trend toward large numbers of women attending college applies to _____________.
a. the United States even more than to other industrialized countries b. industrialized countries in North American but not in Europe c. Asian countries more than European countries d. developing countries more than industrialized countries
17. Most incidents of sexual harassment on college campuses are _____________.
a. reported to university officials who take action against offending faculty b. reported to university officials who take action against offending students c. reported to other students who fail to believe the stories d. never reported
18. The widely publicized drop in self-esteem for girls during early adolescence _____________.
a. has not been supported by research findings b. is larger in girls and occurs earlier in adolescence than the increase that occurs in boys c. is followed by another decrease that occurs in girls during later adolescence d. applies to gender-typed activities more strongly than to other types of activities
19. Craig said, "I knew I would fail that physiology quiz! I hadn't studied at all, but I can study for the next one and bring up my grade." Craig was using what type of attribution to explain his performance?
a. an internal, stable attribution b. an internal, unstable attribution c. an external, unstable attribution d. an external, stable attribution
20. The number of female CEOs in Fortune 500 companies is likely to ____________.
a. increase rapidly over the next 10 years due to the growing number of women who are "in the pipeline" that prepares them for these positions b. increase slowly due to the small number of women who are currently in management positions that prepare them for the job of CEO c. decrease due to the number of women who are leaving business careers to be full-time homemakers d. remain at the current level of around 20%
21. The acceptance of traditional gender roles is related to women's _____________.
a. pursuing a career traditionally associated with women b. rejection of other traditional gender-related behaviors c. likelihood of being lesbian d. tendency to be involved in careers that are time-consuming
22. Men who pursue careers in female-dominated fields ____________.
a. are discriminated against, just as are women who pursue careers in male dominated fields b. are treated more fairly than are women who pursue careers in male-dominated fields, but have no advantage in these female-dominated fields c. have the advantage over women in these fields d. are so uncommon that systematic research is impossible
23. Women who choose male-dominated careers and minimize their family obligations in order to follow the same career path as men tend to ____________.
a. advance in their careers at a rate comparable to men b. make slower progress in their careers than men c. "burn out" and become less successful than women who take a more traditional approach to careers d. outperform the men and to receive faster promotion than men
24. What relationship does family obligations have to men's careers?
a. Time spent developing careers often takes men away from their families. b. Family demands often take men out of the work force. c. Family duties are a source of stress that affects men more than women. d. Men who take time away from work to devote to family advance more rapidly in their careers.
25. The contention that women and men have distinctive styles of communication has _____________.
a. been confirmed for communication in professional but not in personal situations b. been confirmed for communication in personal but not in professional or business situations c. been confirmed for a variety of situations d. not been confirmed
Part D -
1. Which of the following situations best describes the health benefits of marriage?
a. Marriage benefits women's health more than men's health. b. Marriage benefits men's health more than women's health. c. The health benefits of marriage are similar for women and men. d. Single men are healthier but have shorter life expectancies than married men.
2. When women and men report similar symptoms of cardiovascular disease, _____________.
a. they receive similar treatment b. men receive more referrals for further testing than women c. women receive more referrals for further testing than men d. women receive more referrals for further testing than men but fewer referrals for surgical treatment
3. Alcohol use increases the risk for violent death _____________.
a. for drivers but not for passengers b. for men but not for women who are problem drinkers c. at levels that produce intoxication but not at lower levels d. at all levels of use, not just the legal level of intoxication
4. When men and women experience the same types of physical symptoms, the ____________.
a. male gender role prescribes that men should ignore their symptoms b. male gender role prescribes that men should attend to their symptoms by seeking professional attention c. female gender role prescribes that women should ignore their symptoms d. female gender role puts no restrictions on women's health-related behaviors
5. The methods of birth control that concentrate on controlling women's fertility ____________.
a. were more common in the middle of the 20th century than in more recent years b. not only put women in contact with the medical profession but also place women at risk from the side effects of these birth control methods c. increase the risk for sexually transmitted diseases by lowering the immune system's response d. are not as effective as the birth control methods that concentrate on controlling men's fertility
6. Eating less and taking smaller bites ____________.
a. relate to a desire to appear feminine and to make a good social impression b. relate to the taste of the food, and both men and women take smaller bites of less tasty food c. relate to the situation in which people eat, with people eating more in unfamiliar situations and other situations that produce nervousness or unease d. are behaviors that both women and men perform unconsciously in response to familiar people and social settings
7. Which of the following situations pose risks for mental health?
a. a marriage in which both partners are employed b. a marriage in which neither partner is satisfied c. a woman who feels that her husband supports her career efforts d. a woman who feels that her partner contributes to the emotional work of the relationship
8. Being a victim of violence ____________.
a. has short-term but not long-term negative consequences for mental health b. has few short-term consequences but may be a major source of long-term problems in mental health c. has both short-term and long-term negative consequences for mental health d. has not been shown to relate to mental health
9. A possible explanation for women's higher rate of depression is their ____________.
a. more frequent experience with sexist discrimination b. higher rate of multiple role occupancy c. higher rate of college graduation d. higher rate of estrogen
10. Resources for coping include _____________.
a. money b. power c. social support d. All of the above.
11. One view holds that men tend to react to stress by "fight or flight," and women tend to react by _____________.
a. stronger "flight" and less "fight" b. stronger "flight and fight" c. using a "tend and befriend" strategy d. reversing the source of stress and using problem-focused coping
12. Criticisms of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders include _____________.
a. its use of men as the standard for mental health, which puts women without problems at risk for diagnosis b. its multiaxial system, which provides too many ways to diagnose pathology c. its descriptive system of diagnosis, which removes clinical judgment from the diagnostic process d. its inclusion of categories that show gender differences, which ensure gender bias in the process of diagnosis
13. Carl Rogers conceptualized the underlying cause of psychological problems as _____________ and therapy as _____________.
a. lack of acceptance of true feelings; getting in touch with true feelings b. high ego involvement; balancing the unconscious forces of personality c. threats to selfhood; restructuring personality through redevelopment and re-enactment d. conflict within the family during early childhood; examination of family dynamics
14. In rational-emotive therapy, therapists _____________.
a. attempt to restructure personality, concentrating on unconscious elements of personality b. work with the self-concept, attempting to reformulate the self as well as the range of emotions c. attempt to change irrational beliefs, with the assumption that behavior change will follow d. teach clients ways to magnify emotions, resulting in the enlargement of positive emotionality
15. Cognitive behavioral therapy seeks to _____________.
a. change behavior through helping clients to make changes in cognition b. help clients to reformulate relationships and seek inner peace c. lead clients to explore their unconscious and release repressed memories d. change self-esteem and provide ways to reformulate self-concept
16. Electroconvulsive therapy _____________.
a. has become a common type of medical therapy, oriented toward severe cases of schizophrenia and hypomania b. is now reserved mainly for depression, making women more common recipients than men c. is neither a type of medical therapy nor a psychotherapy, leaving its use unregulated and outside the mainstream of treatment for behavior problems d. is illegal in most states
17. Which of the following was NOT among the sexist uses of psychotherapy named by the APA Task Force on Sex Bias?
a. devaluation of women's potential b. overemphasis on androgyny c. sexist use of psychoanalytic concepts d. fostering traditional sex roles
18. The history of feminist therapy can be traced to ____________.
a. feminist psychologists in the 1970s b. feminist colleagues of Freud and other psychoanalytic therapists of the late 1800s c. the first wave of feminism, which occurred during the early years of psychology in the early 1900s d. the Boulder Conference, which set forth the standards for training clinical psychologists
19. The changes in women and men's roles have produced _____________.
a. increasing similarity, which is called gender convergence b. more confrontations and less time for family c. higher incomes but less life satisfaction d. negative changes for women and positive changes for men
20. Women tend to provide emotional support, _____________.
a. which reverses some of the negative effects of family stress b. which contributes to women's self-concept as submissive c. which consists of more passive listening than active problem solving d. but they may have no one to provide such support for them
21. _____________ is a very important factor in whether or not men endorse equality for women.
a. Age b. Ethnic background c. Number of female siblings d. Number of years they have been married
22. Social rewards for men who attempt to become more like women are _____________.
a. present for men who attend men's groups but not for other men b. oriented toward positive femininity rather than all femininity c. an increasing part of corporate culture as well as married life d. lacking
23. Fulfilling multiple roles _____________.
a. has advantages for health and happiness b. is more stressful for women than men c. is positively related to health but not to happiness d. can be dangerous to the health of men
24. In what type of situations do men and women tend to behave in similar ways?
a. in sexual situations b. in educational settings c. in laboratory situations d. in familiar social settings
25. Gender-related differences in the rates of diagnosed psychopathology _____________.
a. are probably due to biological and hormonal differences between women and men b. are less important than age-related differences c. may be due to different choices in dealing with negative feelings d. show little relationships to gender roles