Reference no: EM13926296
Roberts, P., & Priest, H. (Eds.). (2010). Healthcare research: A textbook for students and practitioners. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Cunningham, C. J. L., Weathington, B. L., &Pittenger, D. J. (2013). Understanding and conducting research in the health sciences. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & sons.
Instructions: Please ensure to substantiate your response with scholarly sources or a personal account of your own experience in the work place.
1. Beneficence- Lizbeth: This type of research is directed towards a positive outcome. According to our reading and example presented is, "a researcher may want to interview people who have accessed an NHS audiology service about their experiences of accessing that service; asking how they felt they were treated, whether they were able to communicate their wishes to the healthcare practitioner, and whether their needs were understood. The researcher may also wish to gather factual information, such as how long a patient had waited for an audiology clinic appointment." Within the health care organization I work for many members are ecstatic to provide feedback for their office visits. By providing their experiences with their Doctor's visits that provide suggestions for better quality of service and patient quality of care for those in the near future.
The principle of beneficence is one of the fundamental ethical principles in research: that of 'doing no harm'. An ethical researcher must be prepared to stop the research if there is a reason to suspect that continuation would result in injury or harm of any kind. Undue psychological distress for study subjects is also important to monitor as a study progresses. Involvement in a study should never put a participant in any kind of disadvantage.
In your example above, Lizbeth, it sounds like a Qualitative Study, based on your statement re 'providing their experiences' (as in declarative statements). How could one study this same concept in a Quantitative Design? Any thoughts about this?
2. The need for ethical guidelines is apparent from the historical examples known to us now. We now are concerned about (1) Beneficence, involving freedom from harm & exploitation, (2) Respect for Human Dignity, concerning an individual's right to self-determination, full disclosure of procedures to which they agree, Informed Consent (for surgeries etc, as done in Hospital & Clinic settings), and respect, (3) Justice, involving Fair Treatment & Privacy.
Of course, when working with Vulnerable Groups such as Children, Mentally or emotionally disabled folks, the physically challenged, those who are institutionalized, and pregnant women, there are specific sensitivities of which we must be aware.
Have you considered what concerns a professional would have when working with these 'vulnerable groups'?
To determine if ETHICAL STANDARDS are met in a study, look for mention of the following:
Protect Research Participants from Harm
Participation Must Be Voluntary and Informed--INFORMED CONSENT must be obtained from ea subject
Approval by INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD of facility where research will be conducted
Limits to Using Deception in Research
Privacy, Anonymity, and Confidentiality
Extra Protections for Special Populations
Formal Protections for Research Participants
Do you have an example of a published study you have reviewed which mentions any of the above? Please share in our discussions....
As you review this article, let me know your responses to both of the following:
(1) Suppose it is discovered that a graduate student is mistreating experimental mice by not euthanizing them in a timely manner (allowing those animals to experience an unacceptably high level of pain). What would be appropriate punishment for this behavior? How about for a second or third offense? Would it matter if the offender was a university professor and not a graduate student? Why or why not?
(2) The author, Dr Sharp, mentions the increasing popularity of domesticated pets as one factor in the emergence of anti-vivisectionist sentiments in England. Do you think biomedical research with cats & dogs should be held to higher ethical standards because these animals are kept as pets? Why or why not?
4. Read and discuss the article in 150 words. http://ori.hhs.gov/education/products/ucla/chapter2/page05.htm
5. Read and discuss the article in 150 words http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis/
6. Read and discus the article in 150 words http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917255/
7. Watch the video "Cancer Cell Research: The Way of All Flesh" video http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/adamcurtis/entries/cc9e5db9-5b2f-3297-bb17-dbc119c4ad8d.