What were the independent and dependent variables
Course:- Science
Reference No.:- EM132257639

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Look at the studies provided in the folder ‘Coursework 2 studies for review' [(Adamczyk et al (2015); Addington et al (2011); Bricker et al (2014); Ciufolini et al (2018); Fisher et al (2012)].

For each study mentioned above, answer the following questions:

1. What research design is used, and why do you think the authors chose this method?

2. What were the independent (or predictor) and dependent (or outcome) variables(s)? What other variables not mentioned in the study might be useful to record and why?

3. What methods of data collection were used, and why do you think the researcher used that method of data collection?

4. What evidence, if any, is there of the reliability and/or validity of the chosen measures?

5. What are some of the weaknesses of this type of study design? Could you use a different study design to address the same research question? If not state why, and if yes, what other study design could be used?

Article 1 - A randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for individuals at clinical high risk of psychosis Jean Addington Irvin Epstein, Lu Liu, Paul French, Katherine M. Boydell, Robert B. Zipursky

Article 2 - Bullying victimisation and risk of self harm in early adolescence: longitudinal cohort study

Article 3 - Cortisol awakening response is decreased in patients with first-episode psychosis and increased in healthy controls with a history of severe childhood abuse by Simone Ciufolini, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Helen L. Fisher, Tiago Reis Marques, Heather Taylor, Marta Di Forti d, Patricia Zunszain e, Craig Morgan c, Robin M. Murray a, Carmine M. Pariante, Paola Dazzan, Valeria Mondelli

Article 4 - Cordance derived from REM sleep EEG as a biomarker for treatment response in depression e a naturalistic study after antidepressant medication

Marek Adamczy, Mary Gazea, Bastian Wollweber, Florian Holsboer, Martin Dresler, Axel Steiger, Marcel Pawlowski

Article 5 - Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial of a Smartphone App for Smoking Cessation Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Jonathan B. Bricker, Kristin Mull, Julie A. Kientz, Roger M. Vilardaga, Laina D. Mercer, Katrina Akioka, and Jaimee L. Heffner


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In this report, five identified research study has been discussed. Then the each research study design had been identified. Then the independent and dependent variable of each research study had been identified. Then the data collection method used in each studies were explained.Then the validity and reliability of each studies had been evaluated. In the end, the weaknesses and the alternative research design for each study had been discussed.

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