Reference no: EM13745118
1. You begin your survey in Venice by sampling the marine fauna in the Laguna Veneta at sea level (760 mmHg). The temperature is 30°C and the relative humidity is 78%. What is the tension of carbon dioxide in the seawater?
2. You travel inland until you reach the lovely lake, Lago di Santa Giustina, (Elevation = 650 m, ambient pressure = 703mmHg), where you sample the freshwater fish and invertebrates. The temperature is 20°C and the relative humidity is 62%. What is the oxygen content (ml O2/l H2O) of the lake water?
3. You then climb the many hairpin turns to the Passo della Stelvio (elevation = 2757 m, ambient pressure = 543 mmHg) where you begin sampling the alpine flora at the pass. The temperature is 15°C and the relative humidity is 54%. What is the partial pressure of nitrogen at the pass?
4. You then travel back down to the ancient town of Bormio (elevation =1225 m, ambient pressure = 656 mmHg), famous since Roman times for its hot springs. The air temperature is 20°C and the relative humidity is 34%. One of the thermal springs drains into a pond, which is at 40°C while an adjacent pond is fed by an alpine stream and is at 20°C. Would the tension of oxygen in the warm pond be greater than, less than, or equal to the tension of oxygen in the cold pond?
5. What is the carbon dioxide content (ml CO2/lH2O) of carbon dioxide, present as a dissolved gas, in the 20°C pond from question 4?
6. The 20°C pond is inhabited by an interesting endemic fish species. You wish to determine the oxygen extraction by the fish and therefore measure the oxygen content of the water exiting the gill chamber, which you find to be 1.43 ml O2/l H2O. What is the tension of oxygen in the water exiting the gill chamber? Write the letter of the correct answer in the blank on the left side of the page or fill in the blank with the correct term or value.
7____ The total amount of carbon dioxide present in the 20°C pond of question 4 above would be (a. greater than; b. less than; c. equal to) the amount present as a dissolved gas.
8____ Suppose that you are a new faculty member at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, where Per Scholander worked for many years. You find in a storage cabinet the original apparatus that he used to demonstrate facilitated diffusion and decide to extend his experiments, taking advantage of the many new molecular techniques that are now available. You synthesize several artificial oxygen binding pigments. Each molecule of artificial pigment A includes 8 binding sites for oxygen and has a molecular weight of 50,000. Each molecule of artificial pigment B also includes 8 binding sites for oxygen and has a molecular weight of 80,000. Each molecule of artificial pigment C has 8 binding sites for oxygen and a molecular weight of 1,300,000. Which artificial pigment would show the greatest amount of facilitated diffusion?
9____ The lowest velocity of blood flow in the mammalian circulatory system is observed in the (a. aorta; b. arterioles; c. capillaries; d. venules; e. veins)
10___ Suppose that you are an anatomist studying the gills of a newly discovered deep sea fish. Your laboratory assistant has dissected out a single gill filament but neglected to note its orientation in the gill chamber. With careful dissection you determine that the artery that supplies the lamellae runs adjacent to the pigmented edge of the filament and the vein that drains the lamellae runs along the unpigmented edge. Based on your knowledge of aquatic respiration, you would predict that water flows (a. from the unpigmented to the pigmented edge of the filament; b. from the pigmented to the unpigmented edge of the filament; c. along the length of the gill filament.)
11____ Suppose that you are studying the hopping locomotion of a rabbit and have attached a probe that includes both an accelerometer (by which you can measure hopping frequency) and a pressure transducer (by which you can measure the ventilation frequency). If the animal is hopping with a stride frequency of 2.4 Hz (i.e., 2.4 hops per second) the least likely ventilation frequency you would record would be (a. 1.2 Hz; b. 2.9 Hz; c. 4.8 Hz).
12____ As a bird exhales, air leaving the posterior air sacs (a. enters the lungs; b. enters the anterior air sacs; c. exits the mouth).
Suppose that you are sampling the gas content and pressure of air in the tracheal system of an insect undergoing cyclical respiration.
13____ The highest carbon dioxide tension would be observed at the end of the (a. open phase; b. closed phase; c. fluttering phase) of the cyclical respiration cycle.
14____ The lowest pressure (relative to ambient) in the tracheal system would be measured in the (a. open phase; b. closed phase; c. fluttering phase).
15____ The highest tension of nitrogen in the tracheal system would be measured at the end of the (a. open phase; b. closed phase; c. the fluttering phase)
16____ The highest water loss would occur during (a. the open phase; b. the closed phase; c. the fluttering phase).
17____ Respiratory pigments that are contained in blood cells generally have molecular weights that are (a. greater than; b. less than; c. equal to) those that are dissolved in the blood plasma.
Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves (a, b, & c) are graphed to the right. Fill in the blank with the letter indicating the correct curve for questions 18-24.
Suppose that there is a disease that causes the level of 2.3- diphosphoglycerate to decrease in the blood cells of a certain species of rodent. If curve b represents the blood of a healthy rodent, curve 18_____ would represent the blood of an animal with the disease.
If curve b. represents a blood sample from the venules draining a working muscle, curve 19_____ represents a blood sample from the arterioles that supply the muscle.
An increase in pH would cause the blood represented by sample b. to shift toward the position of curve 20_____.
The arterial blood of a lizard sunning on a rock is represented by curve b. If the animal moves into a cold burrow, the blood would be expected to shift toward the position of curve 21_____.
If you bubbled carbon dioxide in a sample of blood represented by curve b, you would expect it to shift toward the position of curve 22_____.
If a blood sample from a small mole is represented by curve b, a blood sample from a large moose would likely be curve 23____.
If curve b represents the blood of a spinner dolphin weighing 25 kg, curve 24____ most likely represents the blood of a goat weighing 25 kg.
25____ Suppose that you are studying the respiratory system of a turkey vulture. You have equipped the animal with a mask so that you can inject a short burst of brightly colored gas into the inhaled air. If you inject the gas as the vulture inhales you predict that the largest amount of the colored gas would appear in the exhaled air (a. on the next exhalation; b. on the second exhalation; c. on the third exhalation) following the injection.
Suppose that you are a marine biologist who maintains lobsters in a seawater system here in Chapel Hill. Rather than trucking seawater up from the coast, you take advantage of the excellent commercial artificial seawater salt packages to mix your own. You begin with a large tank of distilled water (invertebrates are often sensitive to contaminants in tap water) that is at equilibrium with the air in the tank room.
26____ The oxygen content in the water would (a. increase; b. decrease; c. be unchanged) after you have dissolved the salts in the water.
27____ The tension of oxygen in the water would (a. increase; b. decrease; c. be unchanged) after you have dissolved the salts in the water.
28____ The density of capillaries in the muscle of a beaver would be expected to be (a. greater than; b. less than; c. equal to) that of grizzly bear.
29____ Suppose that you are sampling the air in the respiratory system of a bird as it is breathing. Immediately following inspiration you would predict the tension of carbon dioxide to be highest in the (a. posterior air sacs; b. anterior air sacs; c. main bronchus).
30____ At the normal pH of mammalian blood, most of the carbon dioxide is present in the form of (a. carbonic acid; b. carbonate ion; c. bicarbonate ion; d. a dissolved gas).
Suppose that you are a fish physiologist interested in gill function. You have a miniature probe that allows you to measure both oxygen tension and water velocity simultaneously. You intend to use the probe to make measurements of the water flowing over the lamellae in a fish undergoing normal opercular pumping. As you move the probe closer and closer to the surface of a gill lamella, on a path perpendicular to its surface, you would predict that
31____ the oxygen content of the water will (a. increase; b. decrease; c. remain unchanged) and
32____ the water velocity will (a. increase; b. decrease; c. remain unchanged).
33____ Oxygenated blood binds (a. more; b. less; c. the same amount of) carbon dioxide as does deoxygenated blood. This phenomenon is called the 34___________________________________.
The flow of blood through a branched portion of an unusual circulatory system is illustrated from the side in the diagram above.
35____ The highest pressure would be observed at (position A; position B; position C; position D).
36____ The lowest velocity would be observed at (position A; position B; position C; position D).
37____ The lowest wall tension would be observed at (position A; position B; position C; position D).
38____ If the blood flow stopped, the lowest pressure would be observed at (position A; position B; position C; position D).
39____ If the direction of flow was reversed, the highest velocity would be observed at (position A; position B; position
C; position D)
40____ Significant exchange of oxygen across the skin occurs in (a. mammals; b. terrestrial reptiles; c. amphibians)
Suppose that you decide to repeat Osborne Reynolds experiments investigating laminar and turbulent flow regimes in a pipe. The glass pipe that he used for his experiments had an internal diameter of 3 cm. You are unable to find glass pipe of this size and so use a glass pipe with an internal diameter of 2 cm. If the volume flow rate with the 3 cm pipe was 4 liters per minute, what would the volume flow rate be with the 2 cm pipe? Assume that all other factors are the same. 41_______ liters/min
42___ Based on your knowledge of the composition of the atmosphere it is interesting to consider the demands placed on animals and plants in obtaining CO2 (plants) or O2 (animals) from the air while at the same time limiting water loss. Consider the situation for an insect resting on a plant. You would predict that the problem of water loss by the insect would be (a. greater than; b. less than; c. approximately equal to) that faced by the plant.
43___ Assuming that other factors are unaffected, lowering the blood pressure of an animal would be expected to (a. increase; b. decrease; c. not affected) the volume of lymph generated in a capillary bed.
Fill in the blank with the correct word or words (2 points per blank).
The vertebrate pancreas secretes a fat-hydrolyzing enzyme called 44_____________________________________.
A change in pH can cause a significant change in the affinity of the blood for binding oxygen, which we observe as a shift in the position of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. This is called 45__________________________________.
In fish blood we sometimes see an even stronger change, which is known as 46__________________________________.
Insects, the most successful terrestrial animals, have a hard 47________________________________, which is highly impermeable to gases and whose covering wax layer makes it virtually impermeable to water as well.
Cellulose-containing feed is usually bulky and fermentation is relatively slow. In some animals the major fermentation of cellulose takes place in a large diverticulum from the lower intestine called the 48______________________________.
49_______________________________________ is regurgitation and remastication of undigested fibrous material, which is then swallowed again.
Water and dissolved substances of small molecular weight (gases, salts, sugars, amino acids, etc.) can diffuse relatively unhindered across the capillary wall, but in addition, pressure within the capillary forces some fluid out through the wall by 50___________________________________________________.