Reference no: EM13252685
For each reaction of glycolysis know: reactant(s) name (recognize structures), product(s) name (recognize structures), cofactors, coenzymes, enzyme name, reaction type, reaction spontaneity (direction), regulated or not regulated, any allosteric activator(s) or inhibitor(s).
For each reaction of gluconeogenesis know: reactant(s), product(s), enzyme name, reaction type, regulated or not regulated, any allosteric activator(s) or inhibitor(s).
What is the purpose of glycolysis?
Considering that no oxygen is involved, what is meant when we state that glycolysis is the "anaerobic oxidation of glucose"
At what point or points do carbohydrate fuels enter glycolysis (not just glucose but the most common hexose sugars as monomers, disaccharides and polysaccharides)?
What is the role of activated/inactivated carrier molecules and coenzymes such as ATP, AMP, NADH, NAD+, in glycolysis?
What are the net products of glycolysis - all of them, how many of each if starting from glucose?
o What is the net energy produced by this pathway (in the forms of ATP, NADH)
Know the potential fates of pyruvate and NADH as discussed thus far.
What happens to the NADH and pyruvate produced in glycolysis if the cell CAN respire (that is, capable of completing the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation) and oxygen is available?
What happens to the NADH and pyruvate produced in glycolysis if no oxygen is available and the cell cannot respire (that is, no the TCA cycle, no oxidative phosphorylation)?
In mammalian muscle cells, what happens to NADH and pyruvate if there is no oxygen?
What do mammalian muscle cells do with the NADH and pyruvate when oxygen is available?
What do yeast cells do with the NADH and pyruvate when oxygen is not available?
What do yeast cells do with the NADH and pyruvate when oxygen is available?
In glycolysis , which steps are exergonic?
In glycolysis , which steps are essentially irreversible (NOT identical to the exergonic reactions) and why are they typically not reversible in cells?
In glycolysis , which steps are regulated and which step is the key regulatory step of glycolysis?
Name the three enzymes that control the rate of glycolysis.
Know what molecules inhibit and what activate hexokinase (step 1), phosphofructokinase (step 3) and pyruvate kinase (step 10)
Identify 5 factors or metabolites which control phosphofructokinase activity and indicate their effect.
Know the details of each irreversible, regulated step including all reactants and products, the enzyme name, reaction type, each coenzyme (activated/inactivated carrier) such as ATP, ADP, NAD+, NADH) and cofactors involved in each regulated reaction.
In glycolysis, which steps capture chemical energy? Name the end products that containing this captured chemical energy.
What is the purpose of gluconeogeneis?
Gluconeogenesis shares many reactions with glycolysis but is NOT just the reverse of glycolysis – which reactions are common and which are unique?
Know that the exergonic irreversible reactions of glycolysis are quite different reactions in gluconeogenesis (these are the bypass reactions) to ensure that they will be thermodynamically possible. These bypass reactions use different enzymes, different activated carriers, different reaction mechanisms (for example, a group transfer in glycolysis is a hydrolysis in gluconeogenesis) and have different thermodynamic characteristics.
Know which reactions are different between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (the "bypass reactions") and what is different about them (simple answer - different enzymes are used, different reaction mechanisms are used, different activated carriers are used, etc)
Why must these bypass reactions be different? Why aren't the glycolytic reactions simply reversed to accomplish gluconeogenesis? (recall these pathways are "metabolic polar opposites" with catabolism of glucose through glycolysis and anabolism of glucose through gluconeogenesis
Know that these so-called bypass reactions in gluconeogenesis have favorable thermodynamics through the hydrolysis of 4 ATP, 2 GTP and the oxidation of 2 NADH and uses different enzymes and reaction mechanisms compared to the similar step in glycolysis.
Know which regulated, irreversible, exergonic steps of glycolysis must be bypassed in gluconeogenesis and how this is accomplished (a net loss of ATP and GTP).