### What does it mean for a teacher to shelter his instruction

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Assignment: SIOP Model Planning Sheet

Quite often, teachers obtain their lesson plan ideas from colleagues and/or online and then modify to best fit the individual student needs in their class. For this assignment, you will begin the planning stage of lesson plan development by taking a traditional lesson plan and transforming it into a SIOP Model lesson plan. Yyou will take this planning sheet and develop a complete SIOP Model lesson plan.

Please read Chapter 8, Section 8.5 of your text and review the following videos to gain a better understanding of the SIOP Model:

• Component 1: Lesson Preparation
• Component 2: Building Background
• Component 3: Comprehensible Input
• Component 4: Strategies
• Component 5: Interaction
• Component 6: Practice and Application
• Component 7: Lesson Delivery
• Component 8: Review and Assessment

Step One:

Select one of the following lesson plans that will also be used for your final assignment.

• First Grade Math: A lesson on Symmetry
• Third Grade Science: A lesson on Magnets
• Fourth Grade Social Studies: A lesson on the Algonquian Way of Life
• Fifth Grade English Language Arts: A lesson of Different Genres

Step Two:

Use the following SIOP Model Planning Sheet (attach below) to modify your selected lesson plan and prepare you for the development of a complete SIOP Model lesson plan in Week 5.

Be sure to read Chapter 8, Section 8.2 to support your efforts in developing quality content and language objectives. Here are additional resources as well.

Step Three:

Within the SIOP Model Planning Sheet, there is also a section that requires your reflection on the SIOP model. Examine the eight components of the SIOP framework: preparation, building background, comprehensible input, strategies, interaction, practice application, lesson delivery, and review/evaluation. Explain why each of these eight components support the language development of our ELLs while also acquiring content knowledge. What does it mean for a teacher to "shelter" his or her instruction? How might these components be effective for all students? Be sure to utilize your text and the videos to support your reflection.

For help with completing this assignment, please review the SIOP Model Planning Tip Sheet (this only example).

SIOP Model Planning sheet should be 2 pages long. Please include an APA formatted title page and cite and reference your sources. Be sure that your in-text citations and references reflect APA formatting.

8.5 Research-Based Lesson-Planning Frameworks

Over the years, a number of approaches for teaching English language learners have emerged that are both research based and student centered. Each of the lesson-planning formats outlined in this section offers high-quality instructional practices that have been documented and validated.

Sheltering and the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)

The underlying idea of sheltered instruction is that many aspects of successful teaching practices-including differentiated instruction, the use of technology, and cooperative learning-remain part of the teachers' practices, along with new techniques to support the needs of English learners. There are multiple interpretations of sheltering, which refers to practices designed to enable English learners to participate in grade-appropriate lessons within a mainstream classroom. As you may likely envision, keeping up with their monolingual counterparts can be very difficult for ELL students, and so sheltered instruction offers special support to access the mainstream course content. This support is offered not only for the academic content, but also for the language aspects of learning. When you think of sheltered instruction, think of the symbol of an umbrella: Everyone is sheltered by best teaching practices (see Meet Ms. Kraft for an example of how one teacher used sheltered instruction to encourage student participation in the classroom).

The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) is a well-established framework for teaching English language learners that was developed in the late 1990s. Created by Echevarría, Vogt, and Short (2013)-with the help of many highly experienced ESL and mainstream teachers-the SIOP model is research based and has been used in the United States as well as several other countries (Vogt & Echevarría, 2008). SIOP has been found to improve English learners' academic achievement when implemented in a consistent and systematic way within classrooms (Echevarría, Short, & Powers, 2006; Echevarría et al., 2013).

The SIOP framework includes 30 features organized into eight components, all of which describe characteristics of effective lessons plans for ELLs. The eight major components are as follows:

1. Preparation: Teachers write content and language objectives and plan meaningful activities that are grade and age appropriate.
2. Building Background: Teachers link students' background knowledge and experiences to new concepts.
3. Comprehensible Input: Teachers clearly explain assignments and speak appropriately.
4. Strategies: Teachers equip students with learning strategies so they can learn to become independent, self-directed learners.
5. Interaction: Teachers provide frequent language opportunities that include discussion and asking for clarification.
6. Practice/Application: Teachers create opportunities for students to apply new content and language knowledge.
7. Lesson Delivery: Teachers ensure lessons are student centered and paced accordingly and include teacher responsiveness to both content and language objectives.
8. Review/Evaluation: Teachers review materials and vocabulary with students and conduct formal and informal assessments.

The eight components are broad principles that teachers should adhere to in lesson planning. The extended features of SIOP go into more detail and remind teachers to be deliberate in their technique and pay careful attention to the specific needs of ELLs. Detailing each of these features is beyond the scope of this text, but, generally, they instruct teachers to include these components in their lessons:

a. Extended wait time for students to respond to questions
b. Key vocabulary at the Tier Two or Tier Three levels
c. Adaptation of content to ELLs' background knowledge
d. Connections between previously taught material and new learning
e. Adaptation of content to ELLs' language proficiency levels
f. Clarification in the students' native language
g. Modification of the teacher's speech and gestures
h. Use of supplementary materials
i. Monitoring and assessment of student learning

Meet Ms. Kraft

Small changes in teaching style, such as allowing time for questions and showing samples of completed assignments, can lead to noticeable increases in participation.

Ms. Kraft, a fifth-grade teacher, had fewer and fewer parents attend back to school night each year. The parents were frustrated with her blaming the students for incomplete or missing work. As the number of English language learners increased within the school, parents and administrators noticed that Ms. Kraft was not making any accommodations for her class. Ms. Kraft was a passionate teacher and concerned about the lack of parent participation as well as the incomplete work on the part of the students. One day, in the hallway, she overheard Carlos, one of her ELLs, complaining that he did not "understand what she wanted." This was a moment of clarity for Ms. Kraft. She began to hold up samples of work from the previous year to show examples of a finished product. She changed her teaching style and gave time for students to ask questions following her instructions and spoke more slowly and clearly when giving step-by-step directions. She also allowed the students to send her emails when they were confused about an assignment. Ms. Kraft succeeded in making the content more comprehensible, and her consistent use of student-friendly teaching strategies lowered frustration levels and enhanced participation on the part of the students. Ms. Kraft is looking forward to next year to see if parental participation increases as well.

Reflection Questions

Why do you think it took Ms. Kraft a long time to realize she needs to change her teaching practices? What did she do that made a difference in her classroom? Even though Ms. Kraft has made some adjustments to her instruction, what else would you suggest she try?

Visit the following resources for more about applying the SIOP model in your classroom:

http://www.cal.org/siop/

http://www.esd20.org/assets/1/6/SIOP_Classroom_Stragtegies.pdf

Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)

The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) was developed for both ESL and general-education classrooms by Chamot and O'Malley (1987, 1994) and focuses specifically on teaching learning strategies while integrating content instruction and accommodating academic language development. Students are usually unable to succeed in school without good learning strategies that help them understand and use information. CALLA offers 18 distinct learning strategies organized into three categories: five metacognitive learning strategies, 10 cognitive strategies, and three social/affective strategies suggested for students (see Table 8.1). A metacognitive strategy can be thought of as a plan of action that helps students recall ways to accomplish learning tasks. Cognitive strategies help students interact, organize, manipulate, and apply the target learning material, whereas social/affective strategies deal with the students' emotional well-being necessary to perform at an optimal academic level.

Table 8.1: CALLA learning strategies

Category Strategy Example

Metacognitive 1. Advance organization Students take a "text tour," skimming the entire text for main ideas.

2. Selective attention Students scan the text for specific information, such as places or names of people.

3. Organizational planning Students complete a sequencing chart to plan their essay.

4. Self-monitoring Students check their own language use while speaking or writing.

5. Self-evaluation Students assess how well they can perform a specific task.

Cognitive 6. Resourcing Students use monolingual and bilingual dictionaries to aid in vocabulary learning.

7. Grouping Students categorize key concepts in a lesson, such as creating a mind map diagram.

8. Note-taking Students make written notations of key information, with scaffolding as needed.

9. Summarizing Students make written summaries of key information.

10. Deduction Students apply grammatical rules to use the language in new contexts.

11. Imagery Students use visuals or mental images to understand new information or to make connections.

12. Auditory representation Students play back in their heads what they heard to aid in understanding and remembering new information.

13. Elaboration Students offer detail about a concept by using prior knowledge or new learning.

14. Transfer Students use what they already know about their first language to aid in acquiring English.

15. Inference Students use clues in the text and their prior knowledge to make educated guesses.

Social/Affective

16. Questioning for clarification Students ask their teacher or peers to offer examples or further explanation of complex concepts.

17. Cooperation Students work together to complete or assess a collaborative task.

18. Self-talk Students encourage themselves through positive thinking, thus reducing their own anxiety during the learning process.

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The term strategies in the field of TESOL refers to both instructional strategies applied by teachers and learning strategies applied by students.

In CALLA, teachers explicitly teach students how to apply language learning strategies in different contexts by following a five-step sequence: (1) preparing the students for learning by activating existing knowledge and skills, (2) presenting the learning strategy, (3) having students practice using the strategy to learn new content, (4) helping students evaluate the usefulness of the strategy, and (5) teaching students to expand and apply the strategy in other classes. Instructional activities in CALLA encourage student participation, cooperative learning, and higher-order thinking. The goal is to develop selfdirected, independent, and actively participating learners who can use strategies to promote their own learning (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994).

Visit the following resources for more about applying the CALLA model in your classroom:

http://calla.ws

http://www.nj.gov/education/bilingual/ell_mainstream/part_four/calla.html

Quality Teaching for English Learners (QTEL)

Walqui (2010) and her team at the educational research non-profit organization WestEd developed Quality Teaching for English Learners (QTEL) to help ELLs meet the challenges of the Common Core State Standards and respond to the call that all students should be college and career ready. The six principles formulated in this learning framework are designed to prepare ELL teachers for helping their students meet the goal of college-and-career readiness while offering high levels of support in areas of language and content development. The six QTEL principles are as follows:

• Set high expectations.
• Focus on metaprocesses, or the students' awareness of the processes, strategies, and outcomes of their own learning.
• Create opportunities and sustain quality interactions with peers and teachers.
• Focus on language learning in disciplinary contexts.
• Develop a quality curriculum with a spiraling progression and ample scaffolding.

A central idea and practice of this approach is supporting student participation in social and academic learning activities. Walqui and van Lier (2010) noted that "students develop higher-order functions as they engage in activity that requires them to use language" (p. 7). Meaningful language use is directly connected to the development of new knowledge across the grade levels and content areas. Similar to other programs focused on English language learners, QTEL has been applauded for its successful implementation with English learner populations around the United States.

http://qtel.wested.org

http://www.wested.org/project/quality-teaching-for-english-learners/
Expediting Comprehension for English Language Learners (ExC-ELL)

Calderón (2007) embraced the extensive research conducted on how to design effective content-based literacy practices for adolescents as she created the Expediting Comprehension for English Language Learners (ExC-ELL) program. ExC-ELL is a lesson planning and delivery system designed with the adolescent student learner in mind. In this model, there are 10 key components considered necessary for effective planning. They include the following:

1. Implementation of content standards, objectives, indicators, purpose, outcomes, and targets
2. Parsing of text by teachers
3. Summarization/overview of unit, lesson, and chapter
4. Background building of concepts
5. Review of previous lesson/concepts/content
6. Systematic vocabulary instruction
7. Formulation of questions for drawing on background knowledge
8. Engagement with text
9. Consolidation of content and skills
10. Conducting assessments

According to Calderón (2007), "Students need to learn how to read a variety of texts that progress to grade-level texts quickly. In order to master content and meet standards, teachers learn how to parse texts and select most important content" (p. viii). ExC-ELL incorporates this idea by teaching comprehension strategies explicitly, attending to students' needs to hear adult modeling of fluent read alouds, and providing opportunities for partner reading, all of which are critical activities for ELLs to succeed.

If you have noticed that there is some overlap with other models discussed in this chapter, you are correct. Effective planning requires key components be incorporated in every lesson.

Attachment:- Attachments.rar

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