Well-being are linked to one explanatory style

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Question 1. A study by Cohen et al. revealed that work-related stress can increase a person's vulnerability to:

A. the common cold.

B. heart disease.

C. irritability and aggressiveness.

D. an early death.

Question 2. James has just lost his wife of 35 years to breast cancer. Studies have shown that he will be at higher risk for physical ailments, illness, and possibly death for the next:

A. six months.

B. year.

C. eighteen months.

D. two years.

Question 3. Researchers have found that chronic stressors:

A. affect similar groups of people in the same way.

B. affect people in different ways.

C. lead directly to health problems.

D. are integrated over time, losing their cause-and-effect relationship to illness.

Question 4. Over an extended period of time, the same reactions that fight stress will:

A. make the body more vulnerable to other stressors.

B. gradually discontinue.

C. increase one's energy level.

D. become forms of positive stress.

Question 5. Julia is working and attending college at the same time. Lately, she has been suffering chronic headaches and is falling behind in all her classes. For the past six months her job has been extremely stressful, but she can't quit because she needs the money for tuition and living expenses. According to Hans Selye's theory of the body's response to stressors, Julia has entered the __________ phase of physiological reaction.

A. chronic stress

B. alarm

C. exhaustion

D. resistance

Question 6. If cortisol and other stress hormones remain high too long, they can cause all of the following EXCEPT:

A. hypertension.

B. immune disorders.

C. increased storage of fat.

D. schizophrenia.

Question 7. PNI researchers are especially interested in the:

A. white blood cells of the immune system.

B. relationship between hostility and depression.

C. distinction between primary control and secondary control.

D. cognitive strategies used to cope with stress.

Question 8. Type A personalities are especially at risk for developing heart disease when:

A. they are highly reactive to stress.

B. they display chronic antagonistic hostility.

C. their sense of urgency keeps their hormone levels elevated for extended periods.

D. they exhibit a constant determination to achieve.

Question 9. Mary and Tom are quite a pair. Mary is always expressing her feelings, such as anger and fear, but she seems to get over them quickly. Tom keeps his feelings to himself and broods over them. In their different ways of coping with stress:

A. Tom is healthier, whereas Mary needs to learn some better coping skills.

B. Mary is creating more stress by her emotional displays.

C. Tom is at greater risk because he is placing increased stress on his immune system.

D. there is little difference between them in their risk factors for illness.

Question 10. Philomena knew that attending a college 2,000 miles away from family and friends would be difficult. She has many worries, but so far hasn't found anyone she feels comfortable sharing her feelings with. According to a 1988 study of college students, the best remedy for Philomena's homesickness would be to:

A. get an on-campus job to meet more people.

B. transfer to a college closer to home.

C. keep a diary and write down what she is feeling.

D. begin an aerobic exercise program.

Question 11. Confession brings relief to negative emotions only when it:

A. releases unresolved feelings.

B. results in forgiveness.

C. is expressed verbally.

D. produces insight.

Question 12. Since health and well-being are linked to one's explanatory style, it is important to note that optimists:

A. are unrealistic and tend to deny their problems.

B. are more likely than pessimists to be active problem solvers.

C. avoid facing bad news as long as possible.

D. tend to escape into wishful thinking when confronted with a problem.

Question 13. As Molly looks at the grade on her final exam, she thinks, "I did well on this exam, but only because my roommate helped me study." Molly's thoughts indicate that she probably has:

A. an external locus of control.

B. grown in self-esteem.

C. an internal locus of control.

D. overcome her inability to cope with school-related stress.

Question 14. Rachel is stuck in a low paying job with little hope of promotion. Her boss, a company executive who supervises 10 employees under intense circumstances, never gives Rachel any positive reinforcement. She can't quit because of her family's financial problems. Comparing Rachel's work problems to those of her boss:

A. Rachel's boss is at greater physical risk than she is because of the weight of his responsibilities.

B. Rachel is at greater risk of stress-related illness than her boss who has more control over his work pace and schedule.

C. as colleagues in the same work environment, their risk of stress-related illnesses will be similar.

D. Rachel may be at risk for catching the flu or a cold, but her boss is at risk for developing some form of cancer.

Question 15. A person whose culture emphasizes primary control would agree that:

A. true tolerance is the ability to tolerate the intolerable.

B. sometimes to lose is to win.

C. if you have a problem, you should learn to live with it.

D. if you don't like it, change it.

Question 16. According to Hendrix et al., having fewer colds, reduced anxiety, less depression, and less irritability is related to:

A. secondary control.

B. external locus of control.

C. one's commitment to exercise.

D. primary control.

Question 17. Betsy's cousins were unable to evacuate before a hurricane hit their hometown of Homestead, Florida. When they visited Betsy six months later, all they could talk about was the horrifying experience of living through the storm, whose events they retold hour by hour. Betsy's cousins were experiencing a period of:

A. problem-focused coping.

B. reappraisal.

C. emotion-focused coping.

D. obsessive thoughts.

Question 18. After their home in California was damaged by a major earthquake, a couple looked into federal disaster loan programs to help them rebuild. Their behavior is an example of:

A. external locus of control.

B. reappraisal.

C. emotion-focused coping.

D. problem-focused coping.

Question 19. Sometimes a problem cannot be solved, but we can change the way we think about it. For example, __________ is used as the coping method when a person says, "I'm devastated that our home was flooded, but at least it's still standing. Some of the houses closer to the river are completely gone."

A. internal locus of control.

B. learning from the experience

C. a sense of humor

D. making social comparisons

Question 20. The three strongest predictors of longevity and health are:

A. internal locus of control, support system, and a healthy diet.

B. optimism, support system, and exercise.

C. exercise, healthy diet, and not smoking.

D. exercise, internal locus of control, and healthy diet.

Reference no: EM13785567

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