Understanding temperament in children

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Reference no: EM131250862 , Length: word count:1000

Lab Report Part: Results and Discussion Lab Study: Understanding Temperament in Children

Please note this is the maximum word limit, which will be enforced, so please write concisely. Research journals strictly enforce their word limits for research articles, so it is good to start practicing writing clearly and succinctly. As a guide, approximately 70% of your total word count will be for your discussion, and approximately 30% for your results section. Only the text of the results and discussion sections count in the word count. In text citations will be included in the word count.

The abstract is NOT included in the word count, but you should aim for 100-150 words. The reference list is NOT included in the word count. Tables and figures (as appropriate) are NOT included in the word count. Again, there is no 10% margin with the word count so you need to be as concise as possible.

Recommended texts
- APA (2010). Publication manual of the APA, 6th ed.
- Burton (2010). An interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology (3rd ed.). Milton: John Wiley & Sons.

Remember the research articles you read will give you a good feel for the sort of information that is included in each section of a research study report. However, keep in mind that the exact order and formatting for each journal may differ, and not be in the APA style you need to follow.

Title page (not included in word count)- should not change from your lab report part 1.
The title page should include a clear title telling the reader what the project is about, in about 12-15 words or less, as well as your name, etc. (see Burton p. 65).

Abstract (not included in word count)

The abstract is a concise summary of the whole lab report, which allows a reader to quickly understand what the study was about, how it was conducted, and what the results were. It should give a brief statement of the broad topic under investigation, overall research aims, brief description of methods, statement of main finding/s, and implications of the results.
While there is no word limit for this section, as a guide you should aim for 100-150 words.

In the method section, you should have explained what the scores for each measure were and what they mean (high = x, etc.) In the results section you present the main analysis (i.e., correlations, t-tests, descriptive statistics- see the SPSS output on LMS for guidance).

Clearly state the type of statistical test done and the result/s found for specific combinations of variables. You only need to include the results that help you answer YOUR aims and hypotheses- you don't need to report all results. Include the statistics (e.g., r, t-test, means, p values, etc.). Where there is a significant relationship, be sure to state the direction of that effect.

You may include a figure or table in this section if you think it is appropriate and the best way to convey the information (tables and figures are not included in the word count). Remember to ensure your tables and figures are consistent with APA 6th ed. style. If you include a table or figure, clearly label everything so it makes sense, but make sure the text also says something about the results and refers the reader to the table/figure for more details (i.e., Tables or Figures and text should support one another, not just repeat exactly the same information).

Here is a completely invented example, unrelated to our data, showing how you might report a finding (including clearly stating the variables, the statistics, the direction of effect, and referring the reader to the Figure which shows the detailed result):

"There was a significant relationship between animal type (dogs, cats) and appetite score, t(90)=5.69, p<.001, such that dogs were rated as hungrier than cats (see Figure 1)."

Your tutors will spend more time with you in Tutorial 4 on the results section, including ensuring you understand the SPSS output.


This section clearly re-states the findings and interprets them for the reader, showing how they fit with (or don't fit with) what was expected in the current study, and what previous studies have shown.

Begin specifically by reminding the reader what the main aims of the study were. Then state the findings in simple terms- use prose here in the discussion (rather than numbers and statistics like you did in the results). In the discussion you need to state what the results and numbers actually mean, i.e. interpret them. Then, link your results back to findings from other studies that you presented in the introduction, drawing conclusions about whether they fit or not with what has previously been found. Remember it is ok if your results were not what you predicted based on previous studies and are different to previous research- that is interesting too, and you need to think about how to explain it. You may want to think about why they are the same/different (e.g. look at the definitions of temperament, measurement, participants) to help you with these explanations.

This means you may need to introduce new research that you have not discussed in the introduction into your discussion section, and this is fine, in fact is a good thing. There is no rule that you cannot introduce new references into a discussion section.

The discussion should be the reverse of the introduction - the discussion starts specifically focused on your study, and then broadens back out to consider the topic in general. So, paragraphs should discuss the current results first, and gradually link back with the general topic under investigation.

Toward the end, the discussion should present some consideration of strengths and limitations of the current study. You should think of your own experience with the task of contributing to data collection and what you know from completing the draft ethics application and any associated discussions that you had in your tutorial group, to consider what aspects of the study worked well and which could be improved. You can suggest ways for improving them in future research studies, but also consider where future research might go beyond just replicating and doing things better next time. Do your results give rise to any new and important areas that need to be researched? Are there any implications for the general population, or for clinical populations from your study?


Make sure you appropriately cite and reference the research and literature that you use in your lab report for all sections. It is critically important that you use APA style (6th edition) for your citations and references, and this will be included in the marking rubric for your lab report. Please refer to the Burton text and APA manual, and ask your tutor if you have any questions.

Total word limit: 1000 words

Reference no: EM131250862

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