Summarize the major contributing factors
Course:- Biology
Reference No.:- EM13692842

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1) Summarize the major contributing factors leading to Parkinson's disease

2) Summarize the major contributing factors leading to Alzheimer's disease

3) Briefly explain the role of acetlycholinesterase inhibitors in impulse transmission process.

4) Explain why current strategies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease are directed at increasing dopaminergic activity in brain.

5) Explain why current strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease are directed at increasing cholinergic activity of neurons in brain.

6) Explain the mechanism of action of Alzheimer's disease drugs.

7) What is a main difference between AChE (acetlycholinesterase) inhibitors and NDMA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor channel blockers?

8) Briefly present the difference in mechanism of action of Parkinson's disease drugs and Alzheimer's disease drugs.

9) Compare the mechanism of action of typical and atypical antipsychotics.

10) Briefly present the most common side effects of antipsychotics use.

11) Compare the mechanism of action of amine reuptake inhibitors and atypical antidepressants.

12) What is a clinical benefit of selective MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) use in case of depression treatment?

13) Briefly present the benefits and side effects of tricyclic antidepressants, SSRIs, SNRIs and atypical antidepressants in cases of depression treatment.

14) Why SSRIs and SNRIs have to be closely monitored for drug-drug interactions?

15) What drug interactions can lead to serotonin syndrome?

16) Compare the mechanism of action of benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepines used for anxiety treatment

17) Why agents affecting the GABA receptor can have different mechanism of action and different pharmacological profile?

18) Briefly present the interactions between the benzodiazepines and other antidepressants, including ethanol.

19) Briefly present the difference in mechanism of action of drugs used for seizure disorder. Give examples.

20) Briefly explain how ion channel modulators can be effective for partial and generalized seizures. Compare to GABA/Glutamate modulators. Give examples.

21) Compare the pharmacokinetics of primary and secondary agents used for seizure disorder.


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Parkinson’s disease can be referred as a progressive neurological syndrome where certain nerve cells or neurons controlling movements become impaired or die. The symptoms include rhythmic muscular tremor (shaking or trembling of muscle), rigidity in movements, stiffness of muscles, decreased bodily movements, and droopy posture. Bradykinesia or slowness of movement is another feature observed in Parkinson’s patients as the brain loses control over the smooth muscle movements.

A variety of physiological, genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the development of this neurological disorder (Cummings, 1992).The deficiency of dopamine production or depletion of cells producing dopamine is the major cause leading to Parkinson’s disease. Dopamine is a chemical neurotransmitter, released by the dopaminergic neurons, plays an important role in sending signals to the neurons which regulate coordination of body movements.

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