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1. In a period of little more than fifty years, the orchestra developed into a very colorful, virtuosic instrument. The transverse flute replaced the recorder because of its wider pitch range and larger dynamic range. The clarinet, which was invented around 1700, joined the wind section by about 1750 after numerous mechanical refinements. The Mannheim orchestra was the first orchestra regularly to include clarinets. Frequently orchestras would include one flute and two oboes. Oboists and flutists were hired to play on either instrument. The patron could save money by hiring fewer individuals but still have the ability to provide either flutes or oboes. The pairs of woodwinds added a rich color to the bowed strings. Composers soon began experimenting with differing combinations of strings and winds, thematic manipulation, and other devices to make their music more interesting.
2. The Mannheim orchestra became famous throughout Europe for its virtuosity. Under Johann Stamitz’s leadership it became extremely expressive, developing characteristic performance practices of dramatic contrasts through carefully controlled crescendos and decrescendos and other musical devices. But all orchestras in Europe were not quite the same; many were smaller. Although there was an attempt to standardize the makeup of the orchestra to include pairs of winds and timpani, the wealth of a given musical establishment determined to a great extent how large the orchestra was. Many orchestras didn’t include clarinets until late in the eighteenth century. Most had smaller string sections, too.
3. Point out the clarity of form that is present in the musical examples. Composers wanted their audiences to follow what was happening. They liked to play with listeners’ expectations. Extending a theme or cutting it short could create interest by surprising and amusing the audience. Usually cadences are clear, complete with pauses, separating sections within a movement. Generally, too, the bridge and closing sections became increasingly active rhythmically and dynamically.