Phenomenon to be capitalism or imperialism

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The process through which a larger, more technologically advanced culture can, when it sets its mind on colonization, completely obliterate any culture that stands in its way is a greater issue that all three quotes and picture seek to put across. Bill Ashcroft describes this phenomenon to be Capitalism or Imperialism.(not too sure).

In Jamaica Kincaid's "A small place", she brings to light the various problems, which arise as a result of colonialism, and the various effects or sub problems that arise as a result of phenomena such as capitalism, normalism imperialism and modernity.

In her quote "... they envy your ability to turn their own banality and boredom into a source of pleasure for yourself."(quote provided). We come to realize the greater issue of capitalism and imperialism and modernity.

The effects of colonialism serve as the primary theme for a small place.The country of Antigua was under British rule for some twenty years. In this time period, the British corrupted Antigua by transforming it from the laid back, exotic island, into a miniature version of Great Britain. This type of imperialism completely eliminated any sense of individuality that Antigua might have possessed. Instead of nurturing the Antiguan's beliefs and embracing their cultures, the British forced their traditions and customs upon them (Kincaid 30). In doing so, the Antiguans became much like the British in their way of thinking. And this is one of the effects of colonialism and imperialism; Normalismor mimicry, which Ashcroft defines to be the adopted behaviors of colonization for ridicule or as a protective mechanismThe text seeks to resist implicit normalism of western history. In this same manner we see capitalism playing a major role throughout the novel where these colonial masters come and take control of the natural resources of the land and make It their own or let me say personalize it. Imperialism is defined by Bill ascroft as the formation of an empire and as such has been an aspect if all periodsin history in which one nation has extended its domination over one or several neighbor nations.

Kincaid's primary argument against colonialism seems to be its destruction of a culture's natural development. She points out that Antigua never had an industrial revolution or an "Age of Enlightenment."

"(Wilderness) is quite profoundly a human creation....It is not a pristine sanctuary where the last remnant of an untouched, endangered, but still transcendent nature can for at least a little while longer be encountered without the contaminating taint of civilization."(quote provided)

-The trouble with wilderness- William Cronon.

Cronon - Wilderness

  • Civilization as feminine, 'undisturbed' wilderness, religious dogma, not accessible to poor

In "The Trouble with Wilderness," William Cronon introduces us to the potential danger in society's traditional concept of wilderness.  He points out how we separate ourselves from nature merely by idealizing it and thinking of it as something distant and remote; we do not consider ourselves living as members of the natural world.  Instead, we take part in civilized society while at the same time "imagining that our true home is in the wilderness" (Cronon). Greater picture of Mimicry. Approaching the concept of nature (or wilderness) in this way leads to an ultimate separation of us, as members of society, from what we could consider being our real home.  Our real lives take place in a civilized realm, yet we fantasize about escaping from the artificial constructs of society and long to enter into a remote wilderness.  The national parks seem to offer such an escape.Wilderness is not a natural concept but a developed and constructed concept throughout history. The wilderness has been appropriated . It becomes a place of existence for those who don't live there but go to it as a place of pleasure and beauty. Privatization by enclosure.

Njabulo Ndebele in Game lodges and leisure seeks to express the same the idea as Jamiaca's Kincaid's "A small place".

"The black tourist (as) a leisure colonialist (is) torn up by excruciating ambiguities. He pays to be the viewer who has to be viewed...He is expected to be knowledgeable about 'white things', at the same time as he is transformed into an informant about 'black things', which are then analyzed and interpreted by his campfire companions....Desperately wanting to forget momentarily where he comes from, he is held up for display in the structure and content of the pleasure laid on for him as a paying customer....adding color to the white leisure colonialists' pleasant memories of the game lodge.....But his travail does not end there. The relationship between the black leisure colonialist and the black worker at the game lodge is full of pitfalls...The comfortable status of the privileged guest is only possible where there is a shared culture of leisure between the worker and the tourist, a culture which flourishes and finds legitimacy within a hegemonic political, social and economic dispensation."

-Game lodges and leisuresire colonialists. Caught in the process of becoming (1999) Njabulo Ndebele.

- The "Black tourist" (only referred to as a man)

  • Inherently uncomfortable with the system - he sees the black workers and he sees himself
  • He "pays to be the viewer who has to be viewed" - expected to participate in white conversations, but provide black interpretations. (mimicry,
  • He is the caricature of a tourist and finds no peace

- Power structures: finds legitimacy in hegemonic political, social and economic dispensation

  • Black workers are unsure of how to treat black guests - they are black doing "white" things
  • If they are to "enter a conspiracy of familiarity" the black worker will compromise the dignity and professionalism of the black colonialist

Greater issue of colonialism, imperialism and Mimicry/Normalism and capitalism.

Game lodges are leisure colonialism - "signifying the success of conquest... the ability of the dominant culture to replicate itself far away" (Imperialism)

  • The landscape of apartheid is reproduced within game lodges, and then spreads to reflect the country overall

- People who can afford to come to the game lodge are able to enjoy luxury and personal convenience

  • You stay in a clean house, in a clearing - which is civilization, within the "wild" bush
  • This form of colonial leisure = risk without danger, with guaranteed safety

**The entire country of South Africa is perhaps a large game lodge

  • Black citizens struggle to make sense of their lives, continue to cater to whites
  • As a whole, the country distinguishes itself as a "haven from the chaos of the North" - much like the game lodge, which is marketed as an escape
  • Citizens "look out the window to the North" - there is something inherently wrong with using your vacation home to justify your separation from others.

Reference no: EM131052934

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