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QUESTION 1Assume you review a young patient in the emergency room who is complaining of ankle pain following a soccer game. The patient demonstrates to you that an accident resulted in his foot being forced into an excessively inverted position. Based on this scenario, which of the following is the most likely injury? A. fractured lateral malleolus B. medial malleolar dislocation C. fractured talus D. fractured calcaneus E. tibial dislocationQUESTION 2Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to human locomotion? A. The knee extensors contract during the first part of the stance phase. B. The stance phase of walking is longer than the swing phase. C. The stance phase of walking begins with "foot-flat" as the entire plantar surface of the foot contacts the ground. D. The push-off phase of walking is associated with contraction of the plantar flexors. E. During walking there is a period when both feet are in contact with the ground.QUESTION 3Which of the following would conclusively demonstrate functionality of the deep fibular nerve? A. inversion of the foot B. response to pin prick on the foot at the level of the malleoli C. response to pin prick on the anteromedial surface of the middle of the leg D. eversion of the foot E. response to pin prick on the foot between the first and second toesQUESTION 4Which of the following is not correct for the cribriform plate? A. It is part of the ethmoid bone. B. It is located posterior to the frontal crest. C. It is located in the middle cranial fossa. D. It lies adjacent to the crista galli. E. It possesses numerous tiny foramina that transmit olfactory nerves.QUESTION 5During a difficult delivery an obstetrician uses forceps to extract the infant. Upon examining the baby you notice forceps impressions posteroinferior to the ear. You are most concerned that the: A. styloid process and associated muscles may have been avulsed. B. forceps may have penetrated a fontanelle. C. middle ear cavity may have been crushed. D. facial nerve may have been injured. E. mastoid process may have been avulsed.QUESTION 6Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to the scalp? A. Blood vessels and nerves enter the scalp inferiorly. B. The scalp muscles (e.g., occipitofrontalis) are attached to the pericranium. C. Scalp injuries can result in "black eyes." D. Superficial wounds do not gape because the margins of the wound are held together by the epicranial aponeurosis. E. Scalp infections may spread to the brain via emissary veins that pass through parietal foramina.QUESTION 7Which of the following associations pertaining to the dural venous sinuses is incorrect? A. confluence of the sinuses-near internal occipital protuberance B. arachnoid granulations-calcifications of arachnoid mater within the sinuses associated with arteriosclerosis C. occipital sinus-metastases via internal vertebral venous plexuses D. inferior sagittal sinus-located within the falx cerebri E. sigmoid sinus-continues inferiorly as internal jugular veinQUESTION 8You examine a comatose patient in the emergency room. His wife relates that her husband was struck accidentally in his "temple" by a baseball. After an initial period of unconsciousness, he seemed to be okay but later became drowsy and comatose. You suspect that the patient is suffering from: A. an extradural (epidural) hematoma caused by a laceration of the transverse venous sinus. B. an extradural (epidural) hematoma caused by a laceration of a branch of the middle meningeal artery. C. a subdural hematoma caused by a laceration of a branch of the middle meningeal artery. D. a subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a laceration of the internal carotid artery. E. a subdural hematoma caused by a laceration of a branch of the transverse venous sinus.QUESTION 9Which of the following associations is incorrect pertaining to the blood supply of the brain? A. anterior communication artery-connects anterior cerebral arteries B. middle cerebral artery-supplies the lateral surface of the brain C. cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis)-in most cases prevents development of neurological symptoms following acute ischemic stroke D. cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis)-an anastomosis between the two vertebral and two internal carotid arteries E. hemorrhagic stroke-severe headache and stiff neckQUESTION 10Which of the following is not correct pertaining to olfaction? A. The olfactory tract terminates in the medulla. B. The axons of secondary olfactory neurons form the olfactory tract. C. The central processes of the right and left olfactory receptor neurons each collectively form the right and left olfactory nerve. D. The central processes of the olfactory receptor neurons pass through foramina in the cribriform plate. E. The olfactory nerves terminate in the olfactory bulb, which is in contact with the orbital surface of the frontal lobe of the brain.QUESTION 11Upon neurological examination, you notice a slow pupillary light reflex in a patient's right eye. Which of the following is consistent with this sign? A. compression of the right facial nerve proximal to the geniculate ganglion B. compression of the right facial nerve distal to the geniculate ganglion C. compression of the right oculomotor nerve D. lesion of the left long ciliary nerves E. lesion of the right nasociliary nerveQUESTION 12Which of the following is not correct for the trochlear nerve? A. It passes through the superior orbital fissure. B. Nerve injury is characterized by inability to focus on near objects. C. It innervates the superior oblique. D. Nerve injury is characterized by lack of coordination for the two eyes when looking downwards. E. It emerges from the posterior aspect of the brainstem.QUESTION 13Which of the following is not correct for the motor fibers of the trigeminal nerve? A. They innervate the muscles of mastication. B. They pass through foramen ovale. C. They are distributed entirely with the mandibular division. D. They innervate the tensor tympani muscle. E. They originate in the trigeminal ganglion.QUESTION 14A lesion of the facial nerve may result in all of the following except: A. loss of taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. B. increase in loudness of sound C. partial sensory denervation of the auricle. D. inability to open eye. E. loss of tear production.QUESTION 15Which of the following is not correct pertaining to the VIIIth (vestibulorcochlear) cranial nerve? A. It contains somatic motor fibers. B. It enters the internal acoustic meatus. C. A lesion can result in vertigo. D. A lesion can result in tinnitus. E. A lesion can result in hearing loss.
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