Reference no: EM132136341
Assignment 
1. Let (T, ∧, ∨,', 0, 1) be a Boolean Algebra.
Define ∗ : T × T → T and o : T × T → T as follows:
x ∗ y := (x ∨ y)' x o y := (x ∧ y)'
(a) Show, using the laws of Boolean Algebra, how to define x ∗ y using only x, y, o and parentheses.
(b) Show, using the laws of Boolean Algebra, how to define x o y using only x, y, ∗ and parentheses.
Define R ⊆ T × T as follows: (x, y) ∈ R if, and only if, (x ∧ y) ∨ (x' ∧ y') = 1
(c) Show, using the laws of Boolean Algebra, that R is an equivalence relation. Hint: You may want to use the observation that if A = B = 1 then A ∧ B ∧ C = A ∧ B implies C = 1 (why?)
2. Let P F denote the set of wellformed propositional formulas made up of propositional variables, T, ⊥, and the connectives ¬, ∧, and ∨. Recall from Quiz 7 the definitions of dual and flip as functions from PF to PF:






 dual(φ ∧ ψ) = dual(φ) ∨ dual(ψ)

 flip(φ ∧ ψ) = flip(φ) ∧ flip(ψ)

 dual(φ ∨ ψ) = dual(φ) ∧ dual(ψ)

 flip(φ ∨ ψ) = flip(φ) ∨ flip(ψ)

(a) For the formula φ = p ∨ (q ∧ ¬r):
(i) What is dual(φ)?
(ii) What is flip(φ)?
(b) Prove that for all φ ∈ PF: flip(φ) is logically equivalent to ¬dual(φ).
3. Let P(n) be the proposition that: for all k, with 1 ≤ k ≤ n,
(a) Prove that P(n) holds for all n ≥ 1. (Note: it is possible to do this without using induction)
We can compute from the formula given in lectures, however this can often require computing unnecessarily large numbers. For example,= 253338471349988640 which can be expressed as a 64bit integer, but 100! is larger than a 512bit integer. We can, however, make use of the equation above to compute more efficiently. Here are two algorithms for doing this:
Let trec(n, k) be the running time for chooseRec(n, k), and let t_{iter}(n) be the running time for chooseIter(n, k). Let T_{rec}(n) = max_{0≤k≤n} t_{rec}(n, k) and T_{iter}(n) = max_{0≤k≤n} t_{iter}(n, k) (so T_{rec}(n) ≥ t_{rec}(n, k) for all k, and likewise for T_{iter}(n)).
(b) Give an asymptotic upper bound for T_{rec}(n). Justify your answer.
(c) Give an asymptotic upper bound for T_{iter}(n). Justify your answer.