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1. Australopithecus boisei displays a combination of __ incisors and __ molars which together suggest a great emphasis on __ food preparation.A) chisel - like / cusp / meat and fruit inB) tiny / greatly enlarged / post canineC) large / reduced / the use of tools inD) sharp / flat / chewing in2. Based on your finding from the lab exercise, you would predict that the diet of robust australopithecines includeA) young leavesB) hard nuts and fruitsC) soft fruitsD) meat3. If an organism has a 18.104.22.168 dental formula, how many total premolars are there?A) 2B) 8C) 6D) 44. If you were to place the following species into a phylogeny, what would be the order?a. A. africanusb. A. ramidusc. A. afarensisA) b, a, cB) b, c, aC) c, b, aD) a, b, c5. In the lab exercise, you found that the tooth area of robust australopithecines were not as predicted. One reason that accounts for this observation is the difference in the area ofA) canines and premolars onlyB) premolars and molarsC) just the premolarsD) the large incisorsE) canines6. In the lab you found that cheek tooth area of A. boisei was not what would be predicted. This information suggest that the australopithecines diet was __ that of the living apes and humans.A) different fromB) identical toC) relatively similar toD) unable to be compared to7. It has been agreed upon that all robust australopithecines speciesA) have become extinct without leaving any descendantsB) have gone extinct but part of the lineage gave rise to gracile formsC) are the ancestors to later members of the genus HomoD) survive to modern times8. Members of the genus Australopithecus have been identified fromA) south Africa onlyB) eastern and southern AfricaC) Africa and EuropeD) All over Africa9. Of those listed, which is the earliest member of the genus Australopithecus?A) A. boiseiB) A. afarensisC) A. anamensisD) A. robustus10. The dental formula of robust australopithecines is __. The dental formula of gracile australopithecines is __.A) 22.214.171.124 / 126.96.36.199B) 188.8.131.52 / 184.108.40.206C) 220.127.116.11 / 18.104.22.168D) 22.214.171.124 / 126.96.36.1991) The famous "Lucy" fossil is from the species __, which is classified as a __ australopithecine.A) A. afarensis / gracileB) A. africanus / gracileC) A. ramidus / robustD) A boisei / robust12) The first value in the dental formula is the number ofA) caninesB) premolarsC) molarsD) incisors13) Which of the following are robust Australopithecines?A) A. aethiopicusB) A. boiseiC) A. robustusD) all of these14) Which of the following is the genus that some researchers have given the robust forms?A) AethiopicusB) RamidusC) GarhiD) Paranthropus15) You discovered in the lab that robust australopithecine cheek tooth area is __ than predicted from the sample of living hominids.A) much smallerB) smallerC) much largerD) variableE) larger16) The fossil evidence for Sivapithecus shows no characteristics in common with Pongo, modern orangutans.TRUEFALSE17) The __ in northern Egypt is one of the only places on the African continent to have produced primate fossils of Oligocene age.A) Fayum DepressionB) SiwaliksC) Olduvai GorgeD) Nile River Delta18) When examining a stratigraphic outcropping of sedimentary rock, the law of superposition tells us thatA) the rocks at lower levels are older than those at higher levelsB) all sedimentary rock is the same age regardless of the levelC) the rocks at higher levels are older than those at lower levelsD) only absolute dates can tell use which rock level is older.
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