Reference no: EM131355553
The video game developer is the software developer that specializes in the video game development - process and related disciplines of creating video games. The game developer can range from one person who undertakes all tasks to the large business with the employee responsibilities split between the individual disciplines, such as programming, design, art, testing, etc. Most game development companies have the video game publisher financial and usually marketing support. Self-funded developers are known as the independent or indie developers and usually make indie games.
Most video game publishers maintain development studios (such as Electronic Arts's EA Canada, Square Enix's studios, Activision's Radical Entertainment, Nintendo EAD and the Sony's Polyphony Digital and Naughty Dog). However, since publishing is still their primary activity they are the generally described as "publishers" rather than "developers". Developers may be private as well (such as how Bungie was, company which developed the Halo series exclusive to the Microsoft's Xbox).
The developer may specialize in a certain video game console (such as Nintendo's Wii U, Microsoft's Xbox One, Sony's PlayStation 4, Playstation 4 pro), and may develop for the number of systems (including personal computers and the mobile devices).  Video-game developers specialize in the certain types of the games (such as role-playing video games and first-person shooters). Some focus on porting games from one system to another, and translating games from the one language to another. Less commonly, some do other kinds of the software-development work in the addition to the games.
Independently owned studios who take the development contracts from platform holders and what they produce will usually be exclusive to that the platform.
Studios that are partially and wholly owned by platform holder (also known as the subsidiary) and what they produce will usually be exclusive to that platform.
In the video game industry, the first-party developer is part of the company which manufactures the video game console and the develops exclusively for it. First-party developers may use name of company itself (such as Nintendo), have the specific division name (such as Sony's Polyphony Digital) and have been the independent studio before being acquired by console manufacturer (such as Rare or Naughty Dog).
Second-party developer is the colloquial term used by the gaming enthusiasts and the media often used to describe two different types of the game development studios:
In reality, resulting game is first party (since it is funded by platform holder who usually owns the resulting IP), but term helps to distinguish the independent studios from those directly owned by platform holder. These studios may have exclusive publishing agreements (and other business relationships) with platform holder, while maintaining independence. Examples are Insomniac Games (which previously developed the games solely for the Sony's PlayStation platforms as the independent studio), ADK for SNK consoles, Rareware for Nintendo and the later Microsoft, and the Game Freak (which primarily develops Nintendo-exclusive Pokémon game series).