Reference no: EM131227896 , Length:
The topic of the animals is giraffe.
Use the proforma for the Assignment and type your answers straight into the Word document, which is available online on the homepage.
For this course, you will design an enrichment study for one species housed in a zoo environment (Adelaide Zoo), using a visit to Adelaide Zoo to incorporate specific details or final ideas for your Study Design Report (Assignment 2).
The first step involves developing a study design proposal (Assignment 1), to assess the effectiveness of an enrichment technique or object(s). This is an important skill for psychologists who need to understand how research is conducted to answer a research question. Such a proposal is needed before ANY such study is given approval by an ethics committee or a zoo (or other organisation where a study is to be conducted). You will also be designing or developing a safe enrichment object(s) or technique that could be suitable for individuals of your chosen species that are housed at Adelaide Zoo.
You will not actually conduct the study or collect data- it is just a study proposal.
STEP 1: choose a species housed at Adelaide Zoo for your study design proposal.
Please go to the Adelaide Zoo website and choose one of the species of interest to you (NOT Australian Sea-lions or Giant Pandas) that is housed at the zoo: http://www.adelaidezoo.com.au/animals/
Read Adelaide Zoo's information about the species to find out more about the individual animals housed at the zoo. For example, there are two Malayan tapirs, named Mia and Jelita.
STEP 2: read the IUCN Red List report about your species prepared by scientific experts.
Please read the report prepared by scientific experts about your species and the conservation status and threats it faces through the following website: The IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM: http://www.iucnredlist.org/. As little is known about some animals (e.g. some fish, birds, reptiles), there may not be an IUCN Red List report for every species housed at Adelaide Zoo. If you can't find a report about your species of choice, then please contact me in the first week of lectures/workshops.
Here are two examples of what the webpage for a report looks like and how it should be cited. The Citation is always given at the bottom of the report page.
STEP 3: find and read peer-reviewed articles or reports by experts about enrichment for captive animals.
Your study design proposal will be for the addition and then removal of enrichment items/devices and the effect of this on the behaviour and enclosure usage of the individual animals of your chosen species in an enclosure at Adelaide Zoo.
You will need to design a study which involves systematic sampling (recording) of the animals' behaviour (to provide an activity budget) and location in the enclosure. Ideally it will be for one group of animals (or individual if one is housed alone) in one enclosure.
Most enrichment studies in zoos aim to increase diversity of behaviour, increase use of enclosure space, and reduce time spent engaged in stereotypic behaviour(s). Most enrichment studies measure the animals' behaviour and enclosure/location use with and without the enrichment objects/device/procedure.
A useful guide to research conducted in zoos has been provided online by the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA). You should consult this for ideas about your project proposal. Please make sure that you read Chapter 6 (pp. 73-79):
Hill, S.P., and Plowman, A. (2013). A Keeper's Guide to Evaluating Environmental Enrichment Efforts. In: J. Bishop, G. Hosey, and A. Plowman, A. (Eds.), Handbook of Zoo Research, Guidelines for Conducting Research in Zoos. London: British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA). (Available online at: http://www.biaza.org.uk/uploads/Committees/RC/Research%20Guidelines/BIAZA%20Handbook%20of%20 Zoo%20Research%202013.pdf).
To find other references, preferably peer-reviewed journal articles, try entering your species name (e.g. orangutan or squirrel monkey) or topic area (environmental enrichment) into: http://scholar.google.com after logging on through the University of South Australia Library.
The IUCN also has SSC Specialist Groups and Red List Authorities, specialist groups of experts and researchers, for various groups of animals. http://www.iucn.org/theme/species/about/ssc-specialist- groups-and-red-list-authorities-directory. Some have links to their own websites and provide useful scientific reports and publications.
STEP 4: make sure that your study design proposal focuses on:
- one species housed at Adelaide Zoo (if there is more than one species housed in an enclosure, you would mention them all but focus on one for your proposal)
- proposed data only collected in zoo during zoo opening hours (9.00am-4.30pm)
- max length of proposed data collection 6 weeks (like an Honours project)
- proposed data only collected by one observer (you)
- no access to zoo keepers or vets (records, keeper surveys, blood/saliva/faecal samples for lab analysis)
STEP 5: research and develop an idea for an enrichment object(s) or technique:
- Make sure that it is suitable for your species (have other zoos used it or something similar?)
- Consider safety issues related to animal using it (e.g. what object is made of, size of object, where object is placed, how many objects are needed to avoid aggression/competition between animals)
- Consider cost and maintenance issues (e.g. is it cheap, can it be cleaned or fixed or filled up with food easily by zoo staff?)
- Keep track of where you found similar ideas (e.g. website, peer-reviewed articles)
The following pages outline what is expected to be covered in each section of this first
assignment. It is expected that you attend the Lecture/Workshops in Week 1 of the course (or listen to/watch the recordings), which cover studies conducted in zoos (and read any notes provided) and details about the assignment.
TITLE (1 MARK):
- Write a short one-sentence title (<20 words), which provides enough detail about the main focus of the study.
- Include the species name in the title, common name and scientific name in brackets.
Aim for two paragraphs.
- Describe enrichment for captive animals and why zoo-housed animals need enrichment.
- Provide brief details about your chosen species in the ‘wild'. What is its natural habitat? Is it endangered? Is it a social or semi-solitary species?
- Keep this section short and concise (<150 words), and write in sentences (not dot points)
- State hypothesis as a prediction of what you expect to find
- Limit your study to 2 or 3 hypotheses
Keep this section short and concise (<300 words).
- Include the species name. Until you go to Adelaide Zoo you will not know how many animals are in each enclosure. But you will only design a study for animals in one enclosure.
- Give concise details about the proposed study design (e.g., experimental)
- Within-group or between group comparisons?
- State the independent variable(s) or factor(s) involved
- State the dependent variable(s) or measure(s)
- You will need an ethogram (behaviours and their operational definitions) and a map of the enclosure (BUT just mention these here, whereas in Assignment 2 you would need to provide these)
- Provide details about an enrichment object or technique you could use for animals in your enclosure. Make sure that you cover the following:
o Describe the object(s) or technique (include a drawing or sketch if it helps)
o Safety issues considered (e.g. what object is made of, size of object, where object is placed, how many objects are needed to avoid aggression/competition between animals)
o Cost and maintenance issues considered (e.g. is it cheap, can it be cleaned or fixed or filled up with food easily by zoo staff?)
o Similar objects or techniques used elsewhere (e.g. link to a webpage or cite a study)
- There must be enough detail to explain exactly what you are proposing to do (like a ‘cookbook' recipe to allow replication of the study)
- Describe what will happen to the participants during the study ( a standardised procedure)
- How many ‘phases' or different conditions will there be?
- What time(s) will data be collected? All data must be collected during zoo opening hours (9.00am-4.30pm)
Keep this section very short; you can use dot points (but only in this Assignment)
- State which type of data analysis is appropriate for your proposed study (e.g. descriptive statistics and graphs/tables; statistical tests- such as, t-tests, analyses of variance)
SPELLING & GRAMMAR/PARAPHRASING & CITATION & REFERENCING:
It is expected that for every assignment in a Psychology Course you use APA style referencing and provide sources for your ideas. You are also expected to be able to paraphrase (put ideas in your own words).
- refer to the Adelaide Zoo website
- cite the BIAZA reference for your idea (type of research, background, data analysis etc)
- cite the IUCN Red List page for your species
(a) Describe enrichment for zoo primates and explain why zoo-housed animals need enrichment
(b) Details about species
3. STATE THE HYPOTHESES
4. METHOD (A) DESCRIBE THE PARTICIPANTS:
5. METHOD (B) DESCRIBE THE STUDY DESIGN:
6. METHOD (C) DESCRIBE THE MEASURES/MATERIALS NEEDED:
Describe enrichment object or technique (may include drawing or sketch):
Safety issues considered:
Cost and maintenance issues considered:
Similar objects or techniques used:
7. METHOD (D) DESCRIBE THE PROCEDURE
8. BRIEFLY DESCRIBE DATA ANALYSIS