Question :Analyze each case fully.
You may use any resource you like, but be sure to cite it correctly.
References should be in APA format and citations within the text should be (author last name et al, Year).
Do not use any quotes- all answers must be in your own words.
For each case:
Cellular structure: identify the etiological agent (species) and the characteristics of that agent. Include: The structure of the cell ( or acellular structure in the case of viruses) and a general classification (e.g. gram negative, proteobacteria, etc.)
Methodology: describe the process by which this microbe would be visualized (microscopy, staining, etc) and any other tests that might be valid. Explain the significance of these tests in diagnosis the disease
Epidemiology: describe how the disease is spread.
A female patient in her thirties presented with the following signs and symptoms:
She revealed that she has recently traveled to Africa in both plains and mountain regions. She had received standard immunizations (including immunization against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, yellow fever, and typhoid). Prophylaxis therapy for malaria was also prescribed.
Course of illness: mosquito bites soon after arrival. One week following arrival, diarrhea developed. 2 weeks after arrival, developed fever, shaking chills, myaligia, generalized malaise, cough and post-nasal drip. Fever and malaise gradually improved over first few days, then rose and abdominal pain developed. Vomiting and watery diarrhea were present (no blood in the stool). She also experienced a headache, stiff neck and photophobia.
Choose from: malaria, typhoid fever, Cryptosporidium infection, Dengue fever, menigitis, Campylobacter gastroenteritis
A man in his fifties comes to the doctor complaining of chest pain and dysphagia. The patient was from Guatemala. As a child, he had experienced an illness in which swelling of the left eye had been recorded, followed by fever and malaise. He had recovered spontaneously.
A chest CT scan was done. Tests for syphilis were negative. A complete blood count, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and liver functions were all normal.
Chest CT scan (barium swallow). Note: mega-esophagus.
Choose from: Chagas disease, Esophageal cancer, Syphilis, Tuberculosis.
A chronically ill patient presents with the following symptoms:
Low-grade temperature, thrush in the oral cavity, fatigue, weakness, rash on trunk and legs.
What tests would you recommend (at least 3)? Choose one of the tests and describe the causative agent of the potential diagnosis.
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The mentioned symptoms such as fever, chills and diarrhea along with stiff neck and photophobia are associated with meningitis. The disease is likely to be caused by viral or bacterial pathogens.
According to given case information, a mosquito bite is responsible for the transmission of the pathogen into client’s body. The causative agent is West Nile Virus (WNV) that is also considered as an endemic pathogen in Africa (Qian, 2013).
Cellular structure: The cell structure of WNV is identical to that of dengue fever virus, and both of these belong to Flavivirus genus. The genetic material of this virus is composed of single stranded RNA, which encodes for several unstructured proteins and three structured proteins.
ssRNA of WNV is characterized of 11,000 to 12,000 nucleotides and is held within a nucleocapsid formed of protein blocks. The cellular machinery of the virus uses host genetic material to encode membrane protein, which is altered with two viral glycoproteins for recognition of virus (Youn, 2013).