Climate change and the north
Course:- Term Paper
Length: Word Count: 2582
Reference No.:- EM13104

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The essay topic is: Climate Change and the North (with particular Focus on the Inuit)

Times New Roman, 12-point font 

Double spaced (not 2.5, not 1.5) 

Default margins (don't widen or constrict the text) 

9-10 pages (not including bibliography or title page) 


The purpose of this research paper is to help you engage with current events and contemporary challenges concerning Aboriginal people in Canada. You should be able to interpret a current issue in relation to the historical and cultural aspects of the colonial experiences that we have been learning about throughout the course. The conclusion of your paper will explain why it is important that non-Aboriginal Canadians - both long-standing and new Canadians - must examine these challenges as problems for all Canadians to work out together. 

To ensure that all topics are adequately covered in the 'NATV 1240 Online Journal' for the benefit of the class as a whole, the instructor will assign each student a topic from Category A (land and environmental challenges) OR from Category B (social and cultural challenges)- see the category list below. You should begin research by reading ahead through the units that offer the most directly relevant background for your assigned topic. You are also required to move beyond the course material and seek out current/recent primary or secondary resource materials to present further context and information about your assigned topic.

The research paper will be assessed on the student's ability to use information from the textbooks, articles, films, and Internet research to provide context for understanding the assigned topic. As the paper will be 'published' in our class-only 'NATV 1240 Online Journal', it will also be assessed according to usefulness to others as in preparation for the final comparative essay. Style, organization, spelling and grammar will also be assessed as overall presentation assessment. 

General Guidelines for the completion of this assignment 

Getting started: Read the unit readings that correspond most directly to your topic (see Category A and B lists). 

Moving forward: Use the 'Search' fields in the websites provided (and others that you find through Google or Wikipedia for example) for current or recent news/blog items that can provide further context and information about your topic. NOTE: Copy-and-paste from websites into your essay is plagiarism, it is easy to detect, and is severely punished. Proper citation and referencing is expected (see reference guidelines below) for all quotes or excerpts. HOWEVER it is needless and lazy to copy-and-paste chunks of text from websites into your essay, even if properly cited and referenced. You must learn to paraphrase. Take the information you learn and work it into what you want to say in your own words. 

Continue to pay attention to these websites as you move along, as some reporters/bloggers publish frequent updates that will be useful for you.

Format for the paper 

Your essay should have a short, concise introduction, a main body, and a conclusion. 

Introduction: Give a short summary of the issue at hand - one or two paragraphs. 

Main body: Outline the themes and facts and circumstances from the textbooks, article readings, and films (whenever applicable) that give background context and information about your topic. Use your current event resources from the Internet to relate that background to the present, so that the reader connects historical conditions directly to the present day. (Ie: What is the historical lead-up to this issue? How have certain government decisions and/or industrial enterprises impacted Aboriginal people's lives, forcing reaction to this issue? How do aspects of cultural and economic sovereignty, law [Indian Act], and racism play into this issue?) 

Conclusion: Explain why it is important that non-Aboriginal Canadians - both long-standing and new Canadians - should examine these challenges as problems for all Canadians to work out together with the Aboriginal people affected. In other words, explain why challenges for Aboriginal people ultimately concern all of us in important ways. Explore the reasons why this is so. 

Rubric for Assessment 

The research paper is marked out of 50. Emphasis is on content and research, though all categories are important. Half-marks in each category can be awarded by the instructor (to achieve whole numbers when multiplied by 2. For example, 7.5 in a category out of 10 will achieve 15% of the total essay mark) To achieve an 'A' grade, students must amass 43 / 50 (86%) or higher. (see Syllabus for number-to-letter grade ratio) 

Essay Content /50 

A+ - A 

B+  - B 

C+  - C 

D - F 

Content /10 

Demonstrates in-depth knowledge with no factual errors. Many details & examples 

Demonstrates essential knowledge through content with only a 1-2 factual errors. Some details and examples 

Includes most essential knowledge about topic, but there are several factual errors with few examples or details given 

Minimal or missing content & many factual errors. Few, if any, details or examples 

Organization /8 

Content is well organized and logical, using appropriate headings, bulleted lists etc. 

Overall organization is mostly logical with only a few minor flaws 

Content has some logical, organizational content 

There was little clear or logical organizational structure - just a lot of facts 

Creativity /8 

Many original ideas linked to topic and material 

Shows evidence of some critical thought & original thinking 

Minor evidence of original thinking 

Borrows the ideas of others & provides no original input 

Citation /6

Properly gives credit to all sources & uses proper APA format for citing excellent authoritative sources 

Gives credit to most sources and uses proper APA format for citing from authoritative sources 

Some sources are incorrect, not authoritative, or do not have full, correct APA citation 

Copies material without citing sources or are cited incorrectly for APA, and most sources are not authoritative 

Accuracy / Writing Style /8 

All information is correct following academic formal style. No spelling/grammar errors 

Some information is incorrect and sometimes written in an informal style. 1-2 grammar spelling errors 

Much of the information is incorrect & often written in a style that is difficult to understand. More than 2 grammar/spelling errors 

Most of the information is incorrect. Four or more errors in spelling/grammar & very difficult to understand Research /10 

Strong evidence of thorough research from creditable sources. Brings in a great amount of outside material to augment with unit readings 

Some evidence of thorough research, some from creditable sources. Brings in a few examples of outside material to augment with unit readings 

Little evidence of thorough research from almost no creditable sources. Brings in little outside material to augment with unit readings and most of that material is of low academic quality 

Little to no evidence of thorough research. Little or no quality outside material brought in to augment with unit readings 

Category A - Land and/or Environmental Challenges 

     1   Manitoba Metis Federation Land Claim 

Who are the Metis?  Did they ever have land recognized or promised to them?  What happened to that land?  What is the current Manitoba Metis Federation Land Claim about specifically?  Why is this topic important for Canadians, and perhaps especially Manitobans? 

  2   Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipeline 

What is the Enbrige Corporation?  Does Enbridge have a controversial track record/history?  What is the Northern Gateway Pipeline and where does it propose to run?  Why is there First Nation opposition to it? (What are the implications for land jurisdiction?  What are the implications for the environment?) Why have many Canadians come to support the opposition to the pipeline?  Why is this topic important for Canadians?  

     3   Alberta Tar Sands (Athabasca Oil Sands) 

What are the Tar Sands or Oil Sands?  Where are the oil sands located?  Why is there First Nation oppositon to the oil sands?  (Are there Treaty violations happening with this industry?  Is so, what are those? Are there environmental concerns.?)  Why have many Canadians come to support opposition to the oil sands?  Why should Canadians care about this issue?  

     4   Grassy Narrows First Nation - 

Where is Grassy Narrows First Nation?  What are a few of the things happening in Grassy Narrows that make it a place given so much attention over the years?  Are there environmental factors?  Are there potential Treaty violations happening?  Why have many Canadians come to support the struggles in Grassy Narrows?  Why should Canadians care about this issue? 

     5   KitchenuhmaykoosibInninuwug (K.I.) First Nation 

 Where is K.I.?  What is happening there that is giving it so much attention recently?  Are there environmental factors?  Are there potential Treaty violations happening?  What has K.I. been doing to address these issues?  Why have many Canadians come to support K.I.?  Why should Canadians care about this issue? 

     6   Climate Change and the North (with particular focus on the Inuit) 

What is climate change?  What are the effects of climate change on the Arctic?  What implications do these effects have on the Inuit people?  Why should Canadians care about this issue?  What can Canadians do about the issue of climate change? 

     7   Bipole III (Manitoba Hydro Transmission Project) 

What is the Bipole III issue? Where is the proposed transmission project meant to run?   Why are First Nations part of the conversation?  What are some of the historical effects of hydro-electric flooding on First Nations?  Are there environmental implicatons with the Bipole III Projet?  Are there potential Treaty violations?  Why should Canadians care about this issue? 

Category B - Social and/or Cultural Challenges 

     1   Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) to address Residential Schools Legacy 

What is the history of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission?  What is the TRC mandate (mission)?  Why is it called Truth and Reconciliation (ie what does that mean for Canada and Canadians?)  Why should Canadians know and care about the legacy of residential schools?   

     2   Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Girls and Women

How many Aboriginal girls and women are estimated to be missing and murdered?  In what part of Canada have most girls and women been murdered or gone missing?  How does it link to the levels of sexual abuse against Aboriginal girls and women?  Why is it believed that Aboriginal females are targeted violently?  What has been the police response to this crisis?  What has been the First Nations' organizational response to the crisis (ie are there any organizations or programs set up to deal with the issue?)  Why should Canadians care about this issue? 

     3   Aboriginal Children in Foster Care  

What percentage of children in foster care are Aboriginal?  Why are so many Aboriginal children in foster care?  What is the official governmental policy reasoning?  Is there a history of separating Aboriginal children from their parents in Canada?  What is behind this practice?  What implications does being a foster child, raised in non-Aboriginal households have on these individuals' senses of identity? 

     4   High Rates of Alcohol and Substance Use, Violence, and Suicide (including special focus on the hardest-hit people - the Inuit) 

Why are there such high rates of alcohol and substance use, violence, and suicide in Aboriginal communities, and perhaps particularly the Inuit?  (What causes that compel some people to harm themselves and others in this way?)  What are some of the statistics behind alcohol and substance abuse, violence, and suicide?  What in your opinion can be done to remedy the problem?  Why should all Canadians care about this issue? 

     5   'We Are All Treaty People' campaign 

 What is the 'we are all treaty people' campaign?  When and why did it start?  What are treaties?  How have they been violated?  What effects have treaty violations had on the relationship between Aboriginal people and non-Aboriginal people in treaty areas?  Why should all Canadians care about these treaty relationships?  

     6   Underfunding of Aboriginal Education in Canada 

ow much less education funding is given Aboriginal communities than to non-Aboriginal communities?  What does this say about policy toward Aboriginal children generally?  What is some of the history of state/provincial control of education for Aboriginal children in Canada?  Why should all Canadians care about this issue?

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