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81. A price reduction to buyers who buy in large volumes is called a(n): a. quantity discount. b. cash discount. c. seasonal discount. d. trade discount.
82. R&D and engineering first produce the product concept into a physical product during which of the following stages of the new product development process? a. Concept development and testing b. Marketing strategy c. Business analysis d. Product development
83. All of the following are criticisms leveled against marketing by critics EXCEPT: a. harming consumers through high prices. b. harming consumers through deceptive practices. c. harming consumers through high-pressure selling. d. harming consumers through too many product choices.
84. If Toyota describes one of its cars of the future as being "a moderately priced subcompact designed as a second family car to be used around town; the car is ideal for running errands and visiting friends," then the company has just stated a potential new product in terms of a(n): a. product idea b. product image c. product concept d. product feature
85. The primary reason that many companies work to become the "low-cost producers" in their industry is because: a. they can generate more advertising. b. they can please top management. c. they can gain tax advantages. d. they can set lower prices that result in greater sales and profits.
86. Conflicts between different levels of the same channel of distribution are referred to as: a. horizontal conflicts. b. vertical conflicts. c. layer-based conflicts. d. parallel conflicts.
87. ________________ is a philosophy holding that a company's marketing should support the best long-run performance of the marketing system. a. Enlightened marketing b. Myopic marketing c. Fundamental marketing d. Conceptual marketing
88. A company is practicing ________________ if it focuses on subsegments with distinctive traits that may seek a special combination of benefits. a. micromarketing b. niche marketing c. mass marketing d. segment marketing
89. If a consumer describes a car as being the "most economical car on the market," then this descriptor is a: a. rule. b. attitude. c. belief. d. cue.
90. All of the following are commonly recognized promotion budget formats EXCEPT: a. the affordable method. b. the LIFO method. c. the percentage-of-sales method. d. the objective-and-task method.