Condensed Matter Physics
Matter is all around us, everything we use in our everyday life is a state of matter. The solids, liquids and gases play vital role in our life. The study of all these matters and their properties in which atoms or particles adhere to each other, are otherwise highly concentrated. Condensed matter physics deals with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter. These properties appear when a number of atoms at the supramolecular and macromolecular scale interact strongly and adhere to each other or are otherwise highly concentrated in a system. Condensed matter physics seeks to understand the behaviour of these phases by using well established physics laws. In particular, these include the laws of quantum physics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter, in particular, it is concerned with the “condensed” phases that appear whenever the number of constituents in a system is extremely large and the interactions between the constituents are strong. The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and liquids, which arise from the electronic force between atoms.
The diversity of systems and phenomena available for study makes condensed matter physics by far the largest field of contemporary physics. By one estimate, one third of all United States physicists identify themselves as condensed matter physicists. The field has a large overlap with chemistry, material science, and nanotechnology, and there are close connections with the related fields of atomic physics and biophysics.
Many of the concepts and techniques developed for studying solids actually apply to fluid systems. For instance, the conduction electrons in an electrical conductor form a type of quantum fluid with essentially the same properties as fluids made up of atoms. In fact, the phenomena of superconductivity, in which the electrons condense into a new fluid phase in which they can flow without dissipation, is very closely analogous to the superfluid phase found in helium3 at low temperatures. Condensed matter physics is by far the largest field of contemporary physics. Historically, condensed matter physics grew out of solid-state physics, which is now considered one of its main subfields. The term “condensed matter physics” was apparently coined by Philip Anderson when he renamed his research group-previously “solid-state theory” – in 1967. In 1978, the Division of Solid State Physics at the American Society was renamed as the division of Condensed Matter Physics.
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