Aurora Boriolis is a natural phenomenon due to which a very beautiful display of colours is seen in the sky, in the polar regions like Alaska and Northern Canada. Sometimes, a dancing green light is also observed there, which is very fascinating. The explanation of this natural phenomenon is discussed below.
When a moving charged particle enters a uniform magnetic field at some angle other then 0° 90° with the direction of field, it describes a helical path along the magnetic field lines. The magnetic force on the charged particle in the magnetic field is F‾ = q (V‾ × B‾), which is acting perpendicular to V‾ and B‾. As F‾ is perpendicular to V at every point of helical path, hence to work is done by the magnetic field on the particle and magnitude of the velocity of particle remains the same.
If the magnetic field is non-uniform, even then the particle will be performing helical path along the magnetic field line. If the magnetic field lines bend, the charged particle moving on helical path is trapped and guided to move around the field line.
When a solar flare occurs, the large number of energetic electrons and protons are ejected by the sun. Some of them get trapped by the magnetic field of earth and describes helical paths along the magnetic field lines. Since the magnetic field lines of earth come closer to each other near the magnetic poles, hence the density of energetic charged particles, coming due to solar flare, increases near the poles. These energetic protons collide with atoms and molecules of the atmosphere and excite them. The excited oxygen atoms emit green light excited nitrogen molecules emit pink light. This phenomenon is called Aurora Boriolis in Physics. Aurora Boriolis extend in arcs above earth and can occur in a region called auroral oval, which is close to polar region like Alaska and Northern Canada.
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